Poetic Movements from 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries
- Renaissance Poetry begins with the poetry of Petrarch (1304-1374) and extends for 200 years. "This period exploited the formal devices of lyric form." NEOPP It was marked by linguistic purity. Petrarch, Spenser, Milton and a host of others over most of Europe are the poets of this age.
On May Morning by John Milton
Now the bright morning Star, Day's harbinger,
Comes dancing from the East, and leads with her
The Flowery May, who from her green lap throws
The yellow Cowslip, and the pale Primrose.
Hail bounteous May that dost inspire
Mirth and youth, and warm desire,
Woods and Groves, are of thy dressing,
Hill and Dale, doth boast thy blessing.
Thus we salute thee with our early Song,
And welcome thee, and wish thee long.
- Sicilian Poets were associated with the court of Emperor Frederick II (1220-1250) in Palermo and included the Emperor himself. Probably the best known was Giacomo da Lentini who is attributed with writing the first sonnet.
13th century (Sicilian Sonnet) by Giacomo Lentini "first true sonnet" 1197-1250
lo m'aggio posto in core a Dio servire,
com 'io potesse gire in paradiso,
al santo loco, c'aggio audito dire,
o' si mantien sollazzo, gioco e riso.
Sanza mia donna non vi voria gire,
quella c'a blonda testa e claro viso,
che sanza lei non poteria gaudere,
estando da la mia donna diviso.
Ma no lo dico a tale intendimento,
perch 'io pecato ci volesse fare;
se non veder lo suo bel portamento
e lo bel viso e 'l morbido sguardare:
che'l mi teria in gran consolamento,
veggendo la mia donna in ghiora stare.
I have set my heart on serving God,
so that I may go to Paradise,
to the holy place I have heard people speak about,
where pleasure, joy and merriment never cease.
Without my lady, I would not want to go there,
the one who has blond hair and a shilling brow,
for without her, I could not have any joy,
being separated from my lady.
But I am not saying this with the intention
that I might want to commit a sin there;
but only in order to see her dignified bearing
and the beautiful face and the sweet gaze,
for I would consider it a great consolation,
beholding my lady standing in glory.
- Troubadours are from the Middle Ages,12th - 13th centuries, named from the Occitan verb "trobar" = to compose or invent. The troubadour should be distinguished as composers of verse from the jongluer who was usually his servant of lesser class and a minstrel who merely performed the troubadour's composition. The troubadours from the south of France and northern Italy planted the seeds for many verse forms still used today such as the alba, canson, sestina, sonnet, etc. These poets were often of nobility and wealth, including 23 princes and 1 king, Because of his station the troubadour was given great latitude in speech and wrote about love as well as politics from their own perspective. In the 200 year span of popularity, there were only around 400 known troubadours all together. Jaufre Rudel, Arnaut Daniel Guiraut de Bornein and Bernart de Ventadorn. are a few of the troubadours who's works have survived.
A passage from a troubadouric poem by Guiraut de Bornelh
Mas per melhs assire
bos motz en fre
que son tuit cargat e ple
d'us estranhs sens naturals;
mas no sabon tuich de cals.
"But for the better foundation
of my song
I keep on the watch
for words good
on the rein (i.e. tractable like horses), which are all loaded (like pack horses) and full of a meaning
which is unusual, and yet is wholly theirs (naturals);
but it is not everyone that knows what that meaning is".
Troubadours a free ebook Chpt 3 pg 37 by Rev. H.J. Chaytor M.A.
- Trouvères were northern French poets who also composed during the 12th and 13th centuries they were influenced by the troubadours . The group included poets such as Gâce Brulé and Blondel de Nesle.