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  1. Tinker


    Explore the Craft of Writing Arabic Verse Qasida, (purpose poem) sometimes spelled kasida, is an ode that dates back to pre-Islamic Arabia and the Bedouins of the desert. It was originally sung in praise of a tribe or to denigrate an enemy. The poem is made up of a long string of complete couplets called shers and can be as long as 100 couplets. It is a multi-sectional, poly-thematic poem. Over centuries it developed into a courtly poem of praise of a patron and expanded into elegies, satire and more philosophical subjects. The form has endured to the present, although it has taken a back seat to its descendant the shorter, ghazal. It was brought to English literature by Lord Tennyson in Locksley Hall. The elements of the Qasida are: narrative poetry. It tells a story. stanzaic, written in a string of shers (complete couplets), the poem is usually long and may be as long as 100 shers, length is optional. metered optional, the lines should be equal length. rhymed. There are various opinions on rhyme scheme. Some sources say it should be mono-rhymed, all couplets carrying the same rhyme aa aa aa. . . another source shows rhyme scheme aa bb cc dd. . . , it carries a "running incremental refrain" reappearing in each even line, but the most common suggestion is that, the couplets have a running rhyme aa xa xa xa xa xa. . . originally written as a desert poem in 4 units each can be one or several couplets long. opening setting describes or recalls ancient times. tale of lost love or things left behind. the struggles of the journey and its endurance. plea for honor or praise. Inspired by the desert origins of the qasida I wrote a short adaptation: Grit Between My Toes by Judi Van Gorder The gritty grains of sand that seep through cracks of time fall deep. I'm forever severed from the rock of certainty where I've gone to weep. I recall running barefoot on the dunes in days gone, now I can barely creep. Sand shifts beneath my sandaled feet the ascent is weighted, hot and steep. Each ridge conquered leads to descent and another hill, more sand piled in a heap. How many have I climbed this life and how many more are mine to reap? Middle Eastern Poetic Genres and Forms Ghazal Marisya Mukhammas Mussades Muwashsha Nazm Qasida Rubai Shair Sher & its Meters Soaz Urjuza Zajal
  2. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry English Verse English Poets Emulated There are many lesser known stanzaic patterns and verse forms projacked and styled after published poems, then named for the poet. These stanzaic patterns appear to have been invented as teaching tools and published in Pathways for a Poet by Viola Berg 1977. Here are a few named for English poets: The Abercrombie is a stanza pattern using sprung rhythm and an interlocking rhyme scheme. It is patterned after Hymn to Love by British poet, Lascelles Abacrombie (1881-1938). The elements of the Abercrombie are: stanzaic, written in any number of octaves made up of 2 quatrains. metric, written in sprung rhythm with L1,L3,L5,L7 are pentameter, L2 & L6 are tetrameter and L4 & L8 is trimeter. rhymed, interlocking rhyme scheme abac dbdc, efeg hfhg, etc. L4 and L8 are feminine rhyme. The interlocking rhyme is within the octave and does not extend to the next octave. Hymn to Love by Lascelles Abercrombie We are thine, O Love, being in thee and made of thee, As théou, Léove, were the déep thought And we the speech of the thought; yea, spoken are we, Thy fires of thought out-spoken: But burn'd not through us thy imagining Like fiérce méood in a séong céaught, We were as clamour'd words a fool may fling, Loose words, of meaning broken. For what more like the brainless speech of a fool, The lives travelling dark fears, And as a boy throws pebbles in a pool Thrown down abysmal places? Hazardous are the stars, yet is our birth And our journeying time theirs; As words of air, life makes of starry earth sweet soul-delighted faces; As voices are we in the worldly wind; The great wind of the world's fate Is turn'd, as air to a shapen sound, to mind And marvellous desires. But not in the world as voices storm-shatter'd, Not borne down by the wind's weight; The rushing time rings with our splendid word Like darkness fill'd with fires. For Love doth use us for a sound of song, And Love's meaning our life wields, Making our souls like syllables to throng His tunes of exultation, Down the blind speed of a fatal world we fly, As rain blown along earth's fields; Yet are we god-desiring liturgy, Sung joys of adoration; Yea, made of chance and all a labouring strife, We go charged with a strong flame; For as a language Love hath seized on life His burning heart to story. Yea, Love, we are thine, the liturgy of thee, Thy thought's golden and glad name, The mortal conscience of immortal glee, Love's zeal in Love's own glory. The Arnold is a stanzaic pattern that links stanzas with rhyme. It is named for English poet Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) and patterned after his poem The Hymn of Empedocles. Arnold was actually better known for writing the classic Dover Beach. The elements of the Arnold are: stanzaic, written in any even number of cinquains. metered, L1 through L4 are trimeter, L5 is hexameter. rhymed. L1 through L4 are alternating rhyme, L5 rhymes with line 5 of the next stanza. The L5 rhyme changes every 2 stanzas. Rhyme scheme: ababc dedec fgfgh ijijh etc. L1 through L4 are indented 9 spaces. Now that is getting specific. The Hymn of Empedocles by Mathew Arnold IS it so small a thing To have enjoy'd the sun, To have lived light in the spring, To have loved, to have thought, to have done; To have advanced true friends, and beat down baffling foes; That we must feign a bliss Of doubtful future date, And while we dream on this Lose all our present state, And relegate to worlds yet distant our repose? Not much, I know, you prize What pleasures may be had, Who look on life with eyes Estranged, like mine, and sad: And yet the village churl feels the truth more than you; Who 's loth to leave this life Which to him little yields: His hard-task'd sunburnt wife, His often-labour'd fields; The boors with whom he talk'd, the country spots he knew. But thou, because thou hear'st Men scoff at Heaven and Fate; Because the gods thou fear'st Fail to make blest thy state, Tremblest, and wilt not dare to trust the joys there are. I say, Fear not! life still Leaves human effort scope. But, since life teems with ill, Nurse no extravagant hope. Because thou must not dream, thou need'st not then despair. The Binyon is an envelope verse form with refrain patterned after the poem O World, Be Nobler by 19th century English poet Laurence Binyon. Binyon is known as a World War I poet. O World, is not his best known work, he is better known for For the Fallen which is often used in military memorial services. The elements of the Binyon are: a heptastich, a poem in 7 lines. metered, iambic tetrameter. rhymed, rhyme scheme AbccbaA. composed with a refrain, the 1st line is repeated as the last line. O World, Be Nobler Laurence Binyon (1869-1943) O WORLD, be nobler, for her sake! If she but knew thee what thou art, What wrongs are borne, what deeds are done In thee, beneath thy daily sun, Know'st thou not that her tender heart For pain and very shame would break? O World, be nobler, for her sake! The Blunden is named for the English World War I poet, Edmund Blunden (1896- 1933 or 1974??), a stanzaic form with variable meter patterned after his poem The Survival. Blunden unlike most "War Poets", wrote about the loss of beauty in the war torn landscape of France. The easy rhythm of the form brings a kind of melancholy to the poem. This poem could almost be considered a débat. Two voices are heard, the mind's need to cope versus the soul's devastation at the mindless destruction. The elements of the Blunden are: metered, L1, L3, L4, L5 iambic tetrameter and L2, L6 iambic trimeter. stanzaic, any number of sexains or sixains (6 line stanzas). rhymed, rhyme scheme abccab deffde etc. The Survival by Edmund Blunden To-day's house makes to-morrow's road; I knew these heaps of stone When they were walls of grace and might, The country's honour, art's delight That over fountain'd silence show'd Fame's final bastion. Inheritance has found fresh work, Disunion union breeds; Beauty the strong, its difference lost, Has matter fit for flood and frost. Here's the true blood that will not shirk Life's new-commanding needs. With curious costly zeal, O man, Raise orrery and ode; How shines your tower, the only one Of that especial site and stone! And even the dream's confusion can Sustain to-morrow's road. The Bridges is a stanzaic form with a formal tone created by the long and short lines and exact rhyme scheme. It is patterned after Nightingales by English poet Robert Bridges(1844-1930). The elements of the Bridges are: stanzaic, written in any number of sixains. metered, L1,L2, L4 and L5 are loosely iambic pentameter and L3 and L6 are dimeter. rhymed, rhyme scheme aabccb ddeffe etc. Beyond London 1888 by Judi Van Gorder Nightingales by Robert Bridges BEAUTIFUL must be the mountains whence ye come, And bright in the fruitful valleys the streams, wherefrom Ye learn your song: Where are those starry woods? O might I wander there, Among the flowers, which in that heavenly air Bloom the year long! Nay, barren are those mountains and spent the streams: Our song is the voice of desire, that haunts our dreams, A throe of the heart, Whose pining visions dim, forbidden hopes profound, No dying cadence nor long sigh can sound For all our art. Alone, aloud in the raptured ear of men We pour our dark nocturnal secret; and then, As night is withdrawn From these sweet-springing meads and bursting boughs of May, Dream, while the innumerable choir of day Welcome the dawn. The de la Mare is a verse form patterned after Fare Well by English poet, Walter De La Mare (1873-1956).De La Mare is better known for his poem The Listeners. The elements of the de la Mare are: stanzaic, written in any number of octaves made up of 2 quatrains. metered, quatrains of 3 tetrameter lines followed by a dimeter line. rhymed, xaxaxbxb xcxcxdxd etc. x being unrhymed. composed with alternating feminine and masculine end words, only the masculine end words are rhymed. Fare Well by Walter de la Mare When I lie where shades of darkness Shall no more assail mine eyes, Nor the rain make lamentation When the wind sighs; How will fare the world whose wonder Was the very proof of me? Memory fades, must the remembered Perishing be? Oh, when this my dust surrenders Hand, foot, lip, to dust again, May these loved and loving faces Please other men! May the rusting harvest hedgerow Still the Traveller's Joy entwine, And as happy children gather Posies once mine. Look thy last on all things lovely, Every hour. Let no night Seal thy sense in deathly slumber Till to delight Thou have paid thy utmost blessing; Since that all things thou wouldst praise Beauty took from those who loved them In other days The de Tabley is a verse form patterned after Chorus from Medea by John Leicester Warren, Lord de Tabley (1835-1895). De Tabley's poetry reflected his study of the classics and his passion for detail. The elements of the de Tabley are: stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains. metric, alternating iambic pentameter and iambic trimeter lines. L1 of each stanza begins with a trochee Su. rhymed, rhymed scheme abab cdcd etc. Thread of Dreams by Judi Van Gorder Chorus from Medea by John Leicester Warren, Lord de Tabley SWEET are the ways of death to weary feet, Calm are the shades of men. The phantom fears no tyrant in his seat, The slave is master then. Love is abolish'd; well, that this is so; We knew him best as Pain. The gods are all cast out, and let them go! Who ever found them gain? Ready to hurt and slow to succour these; So, while thou breathest, pray. But in the sepulchre all flesh has peace; Their hand is put away. The Dixon measures the differences between masculine and feminine rhyme. Patterned after the poem The Feathers of the Willow by English poet, Richard Watson Dixon (1833-1900).The elements of the Dixon are: stanzaic, written in any number of sixains made up of 2 tercets. metered, trimeter rhymed, rhyme scheme aab ccb. The b rhymes are strong, masculine, the rhyme on a stressed end syllable. The a and c rhymes are feminine or falling rhymes, the rhyme is in the stressed syllable of an end word ending in an unstressed syllable. The Feathers of the Willow by Richard Watson Dixon THE feathers of the willow Are half of them grown yellow Above the swelling stream; And ragged are the bushes, And rusty now the rushes, And wild the clouded gleam. The thistle now is older, His stalk begins to molder, His head is white as snow; The branches all are barer, The linnet's song is rarer, The robin pipeth now. The Dobson is named for Henry Austin Dobson (1840-1921), 19th century English poet, patterned from his The Garden Song. Dobson was respected in his time for his use of French forms especially his mastery of the Triolet.The elements of the Dobson are: stanzaic, written in any number of sixains made up of 3 rhymed couplets. metered, most often written in tetrameter. rhymed, rhyme scheme aabbcc ddeeff et. A Garden Song by Henry Austin Dobson HERE in this sequester'd close Bloom the hyacinth and rose, Here beside the modest stock Flaunts the flaring hollyhock; Here, without a pang, one sees Ranks, conditions, and degrees. All the seasons run their race In this quiet resting place, Peach and apricot and fig Here will ripen and grow big; Here is store and overplus, More had not Alcinoüs! Here, in alleys cool and green, Far ahead the thrush is seen; Here along the southern wall Keeps the bee his festival; All is quiet else--afar Sounds of toil and turmoil are. Here be shadows large and long; Here be spaces meet for song; Grant, O garden-god, that I, Now that none profane is nigh, Now that mood and moment please, Find the fair Pierides! Wake Up Call by Judi Van Gorder The yellow daffodils appear, a season preview, Spring is near. Though winter's silence still is heard in time, new life is undeterred. Awake and open up your eyes the garden offers up the prize. The Donne is named for the English Poet, John Donne (1573-1631) patterned after his A Hymn to God the Father. John Donne was known as a metaphysical poet and his poetic style directly influenced the poetry of the 16th century.The elements of the Donne are: stanzaic, written in any number of sixains. metered, L1 through L4 are pentameter, L5 tetrameter and L6 is dimeter. rhymed, with an alternating rhyme scheme ababab. The rhyme scheme maintains the same 2 rhymes throughout the poem ababab ababab etc. Hymn to God the Father by John Donne WILT Thou forgive that sin where I begun, Which was my sin, though it were done before? Wilt Thou forgive that sin, through which I run, And do run still, though still I do deplore When Thou hast done, Thou hast not done, For I have more. Wilt thou forgive that sin which I have won Others to sin, and made my sin their door? Wilt thou forgive that sin which I did shun A year or two, but wallow'd in, a score? When thou hast done, thou hast not done, For I have more. I have a sin of fear, that when I have spun My last thread, I shall perish on the shore; But swear by thyself, that at my death thy Son Shall shine as he shines now, and heretofore; And, having done that, thou hast done; I fear no more. Done Donne by Rex Allen Brewer How can I find a way to write like Donne, When comes the fun, who cracks the door? My words are poor, like weeds without the sun. I can't find rhyme or pun, I am a bore. I walk the floor, what have I won? Foul done, no score. The Dowson is patterned after the poem They Are Not Long, the Weeping and the Laughing by English poet Ernest Dowson (1867-1900). It is this poem that coined the phrase, "the days of wine and roses." As a side note,Dowson died at the age of 32 a direct result of his alcoholism. The elements of the Dowson are: stanzaic, 2 quatrains. metered, L1-L3 pentameter, L2 trimeter, L4 dimeter. rhymed abab cdcd, L1-L3 of each stanza ends in feminine rhyme and L2-L4 is masculine rhyme. They Are Not Long, The Weeping and the Laughing by Ernest Dowson They are not long, the weeping and the laughter, Love and desire and hate: I think they have no portion in us after We pass the gate. They are not long, the days of wine and roses: Out of a misty dream Our path emerges for awhile, then closes Within a dream. The Fletcher is a verse form that employs long and short lines, from the poem Away, Delights by John Fletcher (1579-1625) The elements of the Fletcher are: 2 octaves made up of 2 quatrains each. metered, L1, L3, L5, L8 are pentameter and L2, L4, L6, L7 are dimeter. rhymed ababcdcd efefghgh , L1 and L3 of each octave are feminine rhyme. Away,Delights! By John Fletcher AWAY, delights! go seek some other dwelling, For I must die. Farewell, false love! thy tongue is ever telling Lie after lie. For ever let me rest now from thy smarts; Alas, for pity go And fire their hearts That have been hard to thee! Mine was not so. Never again deluding love shall know me, For I will die; And all those griefs that think to overgrow me Shall be as I: For ever will I sleep, while poor maids cry-- 'Alas, for pity stay, And let us die With thee! Men cannot mock us in the clay.' The Gilbert is a verse form in which a theme reoccurs in different settings from stanza to stanza. It is named for William Schwenk Gilbert (1836-1911) of Gilbert and Sullivan fame, (operettas for which Gilbert provided the lyrics). The form is patterned after his poem The House of Peers. The elements of the Gilbert are: written in 3 septets. metered, L1,L3,L4,L6,L7 are tetrameter , L2 and L5 are trimeter. rhymed, rhyme scheme xabbacc xdeedff etc. x being unrhymed. The House of Peers by WS Gilbert When Britain really ruled the waves - (In good Queen Bess's time) The House of Peers made no pretense To intellectual eminence, Or scholarship sublime; Yet Britain won her proudest bays In good Queen Bess's glorious days! When Wellington thrashed Bonaparte, As every child can tell, The House of Peers, throughout the war, Did nothing in particular, And did it very well; Yet Britain set the world ablaze In good King George's glorious days! And while the House of Peers withholds Its legislative hand, And noble statesmen do not itch To interfere with matters which They do not understand, As bright will shine Great Britain's rays, As in King George's glorious days! The Herrick makes use of alternating feminine and masculine end words. It is a verse form named for Robert Herrick (1591-1674) and patterned after his poem To the Virgins to Make Much Time. The elements of the Herrick are: stanzaic, a poem of 4 quatrains. metered, alternating tetrameter and trimeter lines. Odd number lines are tetrameter ,even numbered lines are trimeter. rhyme, rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef ghgh. Odd numbered lines are masculine rhyme, even numbered lines have feminine rhyme. To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time by Robert Herrick Gather ye rose-buds while ye may: Old Time is still a-flying; And this same flower that smiles to-day, To-morrow will be dying. The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun, The higher he's a-getting, The sooner will his race be run, And nearer he's to setting. That age is best which is the first, When youth and blood are warmer; But being spent, the worse, and worst Times still succeed the former. Then be not coy, but use your time, And while ye may go marry: For having lost but once your prime You may for ever tarry. The Kipling is a stanzaic form that uses anapestic and iambic meter with internal rhyme. Named for Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) and patterned after his poem L' Envoi. The elements of the Kipling are: stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains. metered, the odd numbered lines are hexameter, the even numbered lines are trimeter. The first metric foot of each line is an anapest followed by either 5 iambs or 2 iambs depending on the length of the line. rhymed, rhyme scheme aa-b-cc-b dd-e-ff-e etc. The odd numbered lines employ internal rhyme. L'Envoi by Rudyard Kipling There's a whisper down the field where the year has shot her yield, And the ricks stand gray to the sun, Singing: -- "Over then, come over, for the bee has quit the clover, And your English summer's done." You have heard the beat of the off-shore wind, And the thresh of the deep-sea rain; You have heard the song -- how long! how long? Pull out on the trail again! Ha' done with the Tents of Shem, dear lass, We've seen the seasons through, And it's time to turn on the old trail, our own trail, the out trail, Pull out, pull out, on the Long Trail -- the trail that is always new. It's North you may run to the rime-ringed sun, Or South to the blind Horn's hate; Or East all the way into Mississippi Bay, Or West to the Golden Gate; Where the blindest bluffs hold good, dear lass, And the wildest tales are true, And the men bulk big on the old trail, our own trail, the out trail, And life runs large on the Long Trail -- the trail that is always new. The days are sick and cold, and the skies are gray and old, And the twice-breathed airs blow damp; And I'd sell my tired soul for the bucking beam-sea roll Of a black Bilbao tramp; With her load-line over her hatch, dear lass, And a drunken Dago crew, And her nose held down on the old trail, our own trail, the out trail From Cadiz Bar on the Long Trail -- the trail that is always new. There be triple ways to take, of the eagle or the snake, Or the way of a man with a maid; But the fairest way to me is a ship's upon the sea In the heel of the North-East Trade. Can you hear the crash on her bows, dear lass, And the drum of the racing screw, As she ships it green on the old trail, our own trail, the out trail, As she lifts and 'scends on the Long Trail -- the trail that is always new? See the shaking funnels roar, with the Peter at the fore, And the fenders grind and heave ,And the derricks clack and grate, as the tackle hooks the crate, And the fall-rope whines through the sheave; It's "Gang-plank up and in," dear lass, It's "Hawsers warp her through!" And it's "All clear aft" on the old trail, our own trail, the out trail, We're backing down on the Long Trail -- the trail that is always new. O the mutter overside, when the port-fog holds us tied, And the sirens hoot their dread! When foot by foot we creep o'er the hueless viewless deep To the sob of the questing lead! It's down by the Lower Hope, dear lass, With the Gunfleet Sands in view, Till the Mouse swings green on the old trail, our own trail, the out trail, And the Gull Light lifts on the Long Trail -- the trail that is always new. O the blazing tropic night, when the wake's a welt of light That holds the hot sky tame, And the steady fore-foot snores through the planet-powdered floors Where the scared whale flukes in flame! Her plates are scarred by the sun, dear lass, And her ropes are taut with the dew, For we're booming down on the old trail, our own trail, the out trail, We're sagging south on the Long Trail -- the trail that is always new. Then home, get her home, where the drunken rollers comb, And the shouting seas drive by, And the engines stamp and ring, and the wet bows reel and swing, And the Southern Cross rides high! Yes, the old lost stars wheel back, dear lass, That blaze in the velvet blue. They're all old friends on the old trail, our own trail, the out trail, They're God's own guides on the Long Trail -- the trail that is always new. Fly forward, O my heart, from the Foreland to the Start -- We're steaming all-too slow, And it's twenty thousand mile to our little lazy isle Where the trumpet-orchids blow! You have heard the call of the off-shore wind, And the voice of the deep-sea rain; You have heard the song -- how long! how long? Pull out on the trail again! The Lord knows what we may find, dear lass, And The Deuce knows what we may do -- But we're back once more on the old trail, our own trail, the out trail, We're down, hull down on the Long Trail -- the trail that is always new. The Noyes is a stanzaic form using uneven short emphatic lines. It is named for English poet Alfred Noyes (1880-1958) patterned after Part II of his poem Art. Noyes is better known for The Highwayman. The elements of the Noyes are: stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains. metered, L1,L2,L4 are trimeter, L3 is monometer. abab cdcd efeg ghgh. Swiss Miss by Judi Van Gorder Art by Alfred Noyes I. Yes! Beauty still rebels! Our dreams like clouds disperse: She dwells In agate, marble, verse. No false constraint be thine! But, for right walking, choose The fine, The strict cothurnus, Muse. Vainly ye seek to escape The toil! The yielding phrase Ye shape Is clay, not chrysoprase. And all in vain ye scorn That seeming ease which ne'er Was born Of aught but love and care. Take up the sculptor's tool! Recall the gods that die To rule In Parian o'er the sky. II. Poet, let passion sleep Till with the cosmic rhyme You keep Eternal tone and time ,By rule of hour and flower, By strength of stern restraint And power To fail and not to faint. The task is hard to learn While all the songs of Spring Return Along the blood and sing. Yet hear from her deep skies, How Art, for all your pain, Still cries Ye must be born again! Reject the wreath of rose, Take up the crown of thorn That shows To-night a child is born. The far immortal face In chosen onyx fine Enchase, Delicate line by line. Strive with Carrara, fight With Parian, till there steal To light Apollo's pure profile. Set the great lucid form Free from its marble tomb To storm The heights of death and doom. Take up the sculptor's tool! Recall the gods that die To rule In Parian o'er the sky. The O'Shaughnessy is a verse form patterned after a single stanza in "Ode" by Arthur William Edgar O'Shaughnessy (1844-1881). The elements of the O'Shaughnessy are: stanzaic, written in any number of octaves. metered, sprung rhythm, alternating trimeter and tetrameter lines. The odd number lines are trimeter and the even number lines are tetrameter. rhymed, rhyme scheme abababab. The odd numbered lines are feminine rhyme and the even numbered lines are masculine rhyme. Ode by Arthur O'Shaughnessy WE are the music-makers, And we are the dreamers of dreams, Wandering by lone sea-breakers, And sitting by desolate streams; World-losers and world-forsakers, On whom the pale moon gleams: Yet we are the movers and shakers Of the world for ever, it seems. With wonderful deathless ditties We build up the world's great cities, And out of a fabulous story We fashion an empire's glory: One man with a dream, at pleasure, Shall go forth and conquer a crown; And three with a new song's measure Can trample an empire down. We, in the ages lying In the buried past of the earth, Built Nineveh with our sighing, And Babel itself with our mirth; And o'erthrew them with prophesying To the old of the new world's worth; For each age is a dream that is dying, Or one that is coming to birth. The Phillimore is a stanzaic form that moves from dimeter to pentameter and back again. It is named for John Swinnerton Phillimore (1873-1926) and patterned after his poem In a Meadow. The elements of the Phillimore are: stanzaic written in any number of octaves. (original poem has 6 octaves) metered, L1, L4,L6 and L8 are dimeter, L2,L3,L5, and L7 are pentameter. rhymed, aabbccdd. In a Meadow by John Swinnerton Phillimore THIS is the place Where far from the unholy populace The daughter of Philosophy and Sleep Her court doth keep, Sweet Contemplation. To her service bound Hover around The little amiable summer airs, Her courtiers. The deep black soil Makes mute her palace-floors with thick trefoil; The grasses sagely nodding overhead Curtain her bed; And lest the feet of strangers overpass Her walls of grass, Gravely a little river goes his rounds To beat the bounds. No bustling flood To make a tumult in her neighborhood, But such a stream as knows to go and come Discreetly dumb. Therein are chambers tapestried with weeds And screen'd with reeds; For roof the waterlily-leaves serene Spread tiles of green. The sun's large eye Falls soberly upon me where I lie; For delicate webs of immaterial haze Refine his rays. The air is full of music none knows what, Or half-forgot; The living echo of dead voices fills The unseen hills. I hear the song Of cuckoo answering cuckoo all day long: And know not if it be my inward sprite For my delight, Making remembered poetry As sound in the ear Like a salt savor poignant in the breeze. Dreams without sleep And sleep too clear for dreaming and too deep, And Quiet very large and manifold, About me rolled. Satiety, that momentary flower Stretched to an hour. These are her gifts that all mankind can use: And all refuse. The Russell is a verse form composed of three alternating rhyme quatrains written with the first 3 lines iambic pentameter and the fourth line iambic trimeter. It is patterned after The Great Breath by George William Russell (1867-1935), The elements of the Russell are: stanzaic, written in 3 quatrains. metered, L1-L3 are pentameter and L4 is trimeter. rhymed, rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef, The Great Breath by George William Russell ITS edges foam'd with amethyst and rose, Withers once more the old blue flower of day: There where the ether like a diamond glows, Its petals fade away. A shadowy tumult stirs the dusky air; Sparkle the delicate dews, the distant snows; The great deep thrills--for through it everywhere The breath of Beauty blows. I saw how all the trembling ages past, Molded to her by deep and deeper breath, Near'd to the hour when Beauty breathes her last And knows herself in death. The Stephens is a stanzaic form that uses alternating rising and falling end syllables and is patterned after The Watcher and named for the English poet verseJames Stephens (1882-1950). The elements of the Stephens are: stanzaic, written in any number of sixains. (original poem has 5 sixains) metered, dimeter. rhymed, ababxb cdcdxd etc. x being unrhymed. composed with feminine endings in the odd numbered lines L1, L3 and L5 and masculine rhyme in the even numbered lines L2, L4, L6. The Watcher by James Stephens A rose for a young head, A ring for a bride, Joy for the homestead Clean and wide Who's that waiting In the rain outside? A heart for an old friend, A hand for the new: Love can to earth lend Heaven's hue Who's that standing In the silver dew? A smile for the parting, A tear as they go, God's sweethearting Ends just so Who's that watching Where the black winds blow ? He who is waiting In the rain outside, He who is standing Where the dew drops wide, He who is watching In the wind must ride (Tho' the pale hands cling) With the rose And the ring And the bride, Must ride With the red of the rose, And the gold cf the ring, And the lips and the hair of the bride. The Stevenson is an invented verse form patterned after the poem, Requiem by Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish poet 1850-1894. The elements of the Stevenson are: an octastich (8 line poem) made up of 2 quatrains. metric, L1-L3 & L5-L7 are iambic tetrameter, L4 & L8 are iambic trimeter. rhymed, rhyme scheme aaabcccb. Requiem by Robert Lewis Stevenson 1879 Under the wide and starry sky, Dig the grave and let me lie. Glad did I live and gladly die, And I laid me down with a will. This is the verse you grave for me: 'Here he lies where he longed to be; Here is the sailor, home from the sea, And the hunter home from the hill.' The Swinburne is a stanzaic form patterned after Before the Mirror by Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909). The elements of the Swinburne are: stanzaic, written in any number of septets. metric, L1,L3,L5, & L6 are trimeter, L2 & L4 are dimeter, and L7 is pentameter. rhymed ababccb dedeffe etc, L1 & L3 have feminine or falling rhyme. Before the Mirror, Part I by Algernon Charles Swinburne I. White rose in red rose-garden Is not so white; Snowdrops that plead for pardon And pine for fright Because the hard East blows Over their maiden rows Grow not as this face grows from pale to bright. Behind the veil, forbidden Shut up from sight, Love, is there sorrow hidden, Is there delight? Is joy thy dower or grief, White rose of weary leaf, Late rose whose life is brief, whose loves are light? Soft snows that hard winds harden Till each flake bite Fill all the flowerless garden Whose flowers took flight Long since when summer ceased, And men rose up from feast, And warm west wind grew east, and warm day night. The Tennyson is a stanzaic form patterned after Ask Me No More by English poet, Alfred Lord Tennyson (1802-1892). The elements of the Tennyson are: stanzaic, written in any number of cinquains. metric, iambic, L1-L4 are pentameter and L5 is dimeter. rhymed, rhyme scheme abbaC deedC fggfC etc. written in with L5 as a refrain repeated from stanza to stanza. From the Heart by Judi Van Gorder Ask Me No More by Alfred Lord Tennyson Ask me no more: the moon may draw the sea; The cloud may stoop from heaven and take the shape, With fold to fold, of mountain or of cape; But O too fond, when have I answer'd thee? Ask me no more. Ask me no more: what answer should I give? I love not hollow cheek or faded eye: Yet, O my friend, I will not have thee die! Ask me no more, lest I should bid thee live; Ask me no more. Ask me no more: thy fate and mine are seal'd: I strove against the stream and all in vain: Let the great river take me to the main: No more, dear love, for at a touch I yield; Ask me no more. The Thorley is a stanzaic form patterned after the poem Chant for Reapers, by English poet, Wilfred Thorley 1878. The elements of the Thorley are: stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains. metred, accentual with alternating lines of L1 & L3 with 5 heavy stesses and L2 & L4 with 3 heavy stresses. The trimeter lines have feminine endings. unrhymed. Chant for Reapers by Wilfred Thorley WHY do you hide, O dryads! when we seek Your healing hands in solace? Who shall soften like you the places rough? Who shall hasten the harvest? Why do you fly, O dryads! when we pray For laden boughs and blossom? Who shall quicken like you the sapling trees? Who shall ripen the orchards? Bare in the wind the branches wave and break, The hazel nuts are hollow. Who shall garner the wheat if you be gone? Who shall sharpen his sickle? Wine have we spilt, O dryads! on our knees Have made you our oblation. Who shall save us from dearth if you be fled? Who shall comfort and kindle? Sadly we delve the furrows, string the vine Whose flimsy burden topples. Downward tumble the woods if you be dumb, Stript of honey and garland. Why do you hide, O dryads! when we call, With pleading hands up-lifted? Smile and bless us again that all be well; Smile again on your children. The Trench is an invented stanzaic form patterned after 20th century, Irish poet, Herbert Trench's A Charge, Ode From Italy in a Time of War. Trench was known for his love poems. The elements of the Trench are: stanzaic, may be written in any number of cinquains. metered, L1, L2, L4 pentameter, L3 dimeter, L5 trimeter. rhymed axbab, cxdcd etc… x being unrhymed. A Charge, Ode From Italy in a Time of War by Herbert Trench 1915 If thou hast squander'd years to grave a gem Commission'd by thy absent Lord, and while 'Tis incomplete, Others would bribe thy needy skill to them Dismiss them to the street! Should'st thou at last discover Beauty's grove, At last be panting on the fragrant verge, But in the track, Drunk with divine possession, thou meet Love Turn at her bidding back. When round thy ship in tempest Hell appears, And every spectre mutters up more dire To snatch control And loose to madness thy deep-kennell'd Fears Then to the helm, O Soul! Last; if upon the cold green-mantling sea Thou cling, alone with Truth, to the last spar, Both castaway, And one must perish let it not be he Whom thou art sworn to obey! The Yeats is a verse form patterned after Where My Books Go by Irish poet, William Butler Yeats. (1865-1939) The elements of the Yeats are: an octastich, a poem in 8 lines. metric, accentual 3 heavy stresses per line. rhymed, rhyme scheme xaxaxaxa x being unrhymed. The odd numbered lines have feminine or falling end syllables. Where My Books Go by William Butler Yeats All the words that I utter, And all the words that I write, Must spread out their wings untiring, And never rest in their flight, Till they come where your sad, sad heart is, And sing to you in the night, Beyond where the waters are moving, Storm-darken'd or starry bright.
  3. Tinker

    The Minute Poem

    Explore the Craft of Writing Light Verse The Minute Poem is a 60 syllable verse form, one syllable for each second in a minute. The theme should be an event that is over and done completely, as in a minute. Since the dominant line is short the effect is likely humorous, whimsical or semi-serious. It was created by Verna Lee Hinegardner, once poet laureate of Arkansas. The elements of the Minute Poem are: narrative poetry. a 12 line poem made up of 3 quatrains. syllabic, 8-4-4-4-8-4-4-4-8-4-4-4 rhymed, rhyme scheme of aabb ccdd eeff. description of a finished event (preferably something done is 60 seconds). is best suited to light verse, likely humorous, whimsical or semi-serious. by Judi Van Gorder Heaven's Hues Above the hills. clouds floated by to prink the sky with heaven's mist. The angels kissed the pale wash of lavender, pink and slate. Light sinks below treetops, horizons' props. It plays the sunset's rhapsody in harmony with soft refrain to stay the rain. Mission For the Queen Quickly the tiny ants skitter pesky critters from afar just dots little black spots One staggers with weight of a crumb like a drunken bum it rights itself crawls down the shelf Mission stamped into DNA its life, the pay to feed the queen whom no one's seen. Timer Set on Pop A steady mechanical whir provocateur A snapping pop crackle won't stop Paper container explosion artful fusion Addicting bite crunchy delight Popping corn in the microwave the taste I crave the butter-rich kernels bewitch. Memorial Day
  4. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Slavic Verse Ukraine: borders Russia, Belarus, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and the Black Sea. The history of its poetry begins with liturgical verse in the 11th century. The Mongol invasion of the 12th century all but wiped out poetic endeavors until the 16th century when the Cossaks revived poetry with the epic form. Then in the 17th and 18th centuries, publication in Ukrainian was outlawed and it wasn't until the 19th century that poets once again emerged. The Duma is a 16th century Ukrainian epic poem that is sung. The verse was performed by Cossack bards and later by blind itinerant musicians. The songs were about historical events often about war but it didn't praise courage, it provided a moral message about the relationships in family, community and church. The Duma has religious undertones and tells tales of death and defeat but not of victory. Language is the dominant element of the Duma. The rhythm is persuasive, the stress often falls on a verb at the end of the line. Parallels and repetition are standard as is the use of archaic language. Song of Ihor's Host The Sevenling is an invented form patterned after the poem He Did Love by 20th century, Ukrainian poet, Anna Akhmatova. The verse form was named and first described by Scottish poet Roddy Lumdsten as a teaching exercise. So who is the creator, Akhmatova or Lumdsten?The Sevenling is a heptastich that includes parallels and ends with a narrative summary line similar to the 3rd line of a haiku with a juxtaposed image. The tone should suggest a little mystery, a feeling that only part of the story is being shared. One source suggests the poem should be titled "Sevenling: (first few words of poem). I found 2 English translations of He Did Love by Akhmatova. I am sorry, I don't know the name of the translator of the 1st translation. He did love three things in this world: Choir chants at vespers, albino peacocks, And worn, weathered maps of America. And he did not love children crying, Or tea served with raspberries, Or woman's hysteria. ...And I was his wife. He loved three things alone: White peacocks, evensong, Old maps of America. He hated children crying, And raspberry jam with his tea, And womanish hysteria. ... And he married me. translorD M Thomas From Selected Poems (Penguin) The elements of the Sevenling are: a heptastich, a poem in 7 lines made up of 2 tercets followed by a single line. metered at the discretion of the poet. unrhymed. composed with 3 complimentary images in the first tercet and 3 parallel images in the second tercet. The end line is a juxtaposed summary of the 2 parallels, a sort of "punchline". Belarus Czech Georgia Hungary Latvia Russia
  5. Tinker

    Trenta Sei

    Explore the Craft of Writing American Verse Trenta-sei, (Italian = 36), is a modern day verse form that appears to have taken its cue from the Sestina and the Villanelle. "Like the Sestina it is a strong pattern not likely to get lost in the language of the poem" Miller Williams, Patterns of Poetry. To me it seems less rigid than the other two verse forms. The rotating repetition of lines from the first stanza brings a little feel of the Villanelle but the repetition is less obvious. It is important that each line of the first stanza is strong enough to lead the subsequent stanzas. It is written as if the first stanza is tumbling down onto the top of a stream of stanzas that follow. The Trenta-sei was created by a 20th century American Poet, John Ciardi. The elements of theTrenta-sei are: narrative verse, it tells a story. usually written as accentual verse (the rhythm of today's speech) with 5 stressed syllables per line stanzaic, composed of 6 sixains, 36 lines total. rhymed, with the rhyme scheme of a heroic sestet, aB1A1B2C1C2 / B1dbdee / A1fafgg / B2hbhii / C1jcjkk / C2lclmm composed with each line (with the exception of L1) of the first stanza taking its turn as the first line of the following stanzas.. Game Six, a trenta sei by Judi Van Gorder 10-26-02 written while watching the game unfold. Bonds at bat, Rodrigues paws the mound, no outs, one strike, two balls, two more and a walk? Excited fans react with thunder stick sound the summer sport disciples have come to gawk. Illusive is the rocky road to fame, a national favorite, World Series game. No outs, one strike, two balls, two more and a walk? It's the top of the sixth, no runners on base he swings with quickening speed and powers the rock I watch the ball soar high out into space, he has done it again and jogs home to his fate; his place in history, he won't abdicate. Excited fans react with thunder stick sound, with rattle slap and clatter, the roar won't stop. The noise so loud it rumbles and shakes the ground, a stampede of horses thundering clippity-clop. LA fans wave their mascot monkey on a stick. If the Giants win those Angels will be sick! The summer sport disciples have come to gawk enjoying beer and hot dogs passing around while spectators cheer, others in shock. It's the thrill of the place, the faithful expound, intensity builds increasing the sound in the din Come on San Francisco bring home that big win. Illusive is the rocky road to fame, team in red at home and now down one. My guys on the road with rally monkeys to tame; a hit, the Angels scored, now this is no fun. The top of the ninth, can we pull this one through? My stomach in knots like I just got the flu. A national favorite, World Series game, "strike three" he shouts--and number six is done, tomorrow will tell if dreams go up in flame. Another nine innings and the best team has won, we'll call them the champs and have a parade. I'm praying the Giants will make the grade.
  6. The Sonnet is probably one of the most popular verse forms written. Several noted poets have tried their hand and offered a slightly skewed rhyme scheme or stanza arrangement to some of their sonnets resulting in someone emulating and naming the sonnet frame after the poet. Are they legitimate separate sonnet forms or are they simply variations of the Petrarchan or Shakespearean forms, who is to say? Here are a few that you may run across. The American Sonnet or Percival's Sonnet named for James Gates Percival's contributed sonnets with a loose metric rhythm consistent with American speech and a unique rhyme scheme. Percival, (1795-1856), American Poet and Geologist spent many years assisting Noah Webster and contributing to the development of the American Dictionary of the English Language of 1828. The elements of the American Sonnet or Percival's Sonnet are: a quatorzain made up of a quatrain followed by 2 quintains metric, a loose pentameter. rhymed abba accca deeed pivot naturally sometime after the 9th line The Dreaming Soul by James Gates Percival O, there are moments when the dreaming soul Forgets the earth, and wanders far away Into some region of eternal day, Where the bright waves in calm and sunshine roll! Thither it wanders, and has reached a goal;- The good, the great, the beautiful, are there, And wreaths of victory crown their flowing hair; And as they move, such music fills the air As ne'er from fabled bower or cavern stole. Soft to the heart it winds, and hushes deep Its cares and sorrows. Thought then, fancy-free, Flies on from bliss to bliss, till, finding thee, It pauses, as the musk-rose charms the bee, Tranced as in happy dream of magic sleep. Byron's Sonnet is a sonnet form named from George Gordon, Lord Byron's attempts at expanding the rhyme from 2 to 3 rhymes in the octave of the Italian or Petrarchan Sonnet. George Gordon (1788-1824) English "romance" poet ( a bit of a rake, known for his many affairs) and parliamentarian is probably best known for writing the narrative Don Juan and the shorter lyrical work She Walks In Beauty. The elements of Byron's Sonnet are: a quatorzain made up of an octave followed by a sestet. metric, iambic pentameter. rhymed, rhyme scheme abba acca dedede pivot or volta between the octave and sestet. Sonnet to Chillon by George Gordon, Lord Byron Eternal spirit of the chainless mind! Brightest in dungeons, Liberty! thou art, For there thy habitation is the heart, The heart which love of thee alone can bind; And when thy sons to fetters are consigned To fetters, and the damp vault's dayless gloom, Their country conquers with their martyrdom, And Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. Chillon! thy prison is a holy place, And thy sad floor an altar, for 'twas trod, Until his very steps have left a trace Worn, as if thy cold pavement were a sod, By Bonnivard! - May none those marks efface! For they appeal from tyranny to God. Channing's Sonnet is a slight adjustment to the structure of the Italian or Petrarchan Sonnet. Instead of octave / sestet frame, the sestet is separated as two tercets. (and in reality is the how many view and write the sestet anyway) Modelled after some sonnets said to have been written by American Poet, Author, and Transcendentalist, William Ellery Channing (1818–1901). I have to admit that I don't know of the title of his sonnets with this frame and I was unable to find an example. Channing is probably better known for his biography of Henry Thoreau. I don't think this is really enough of an adjustment to include here as a separate sonnet form but there are other sites that list it. The elements are: framed with an octave followed by two tercets. Space separates the three stanzas. metric, iambic pentameter, rhymed, rhyme scheme abbaabba cde cde or abbaacca dee dff pivot sometime after the octave Frost's Sonnet couldn't be left off of this list even though it isn't a recognized sonnet frame and I am yet to find it listed elsewhere. Robert Frost, (1874 - 1063) American poet, often wrote in classic form but did create this unique frame for his famous poem The Oven Bird found in his second book North of Boston. The elements of Frost's Sonnet are: a quatorzain made up of a couplet, a sestet, a couplet and a quatrain in that order. metric, loose iambic pentameter rhymed, rhyme scheme aa bcbdcd ee fgfg pivot after the sestet. The Oven Bird by Robert Frost There is a singer everyone has heard. Loud, a mid-summer and a mid-wood bird, Who makes the solid tree trunks sound again. He says that leaves are old and that for flowers Mid-simmer is to spring as one to ten. He says the early petal-fall is past, When pear and cherry bloom went down in showers On sunny days a moment overcast; And comes that other fall we name the fall. He says the highway dust is overall. The bird would cease and he as other birds but that he knows in singing not to sing. The question that he frames in all but words Is what to make of a diminished thing. The Shelley Sonnet follows the octave sestet frame but the rhyme is interlocked . Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792 – 1822) another of England's Romantic poets, is "regarded by some as among the finest lyric poets in the English language." Wikipedia. The elements of the Shelley Sonnet are: a quatorzain made up of 2 quatrains followed by 2 tercets. metric, iambic pentameter rhymed, rhyme scheme abab acdc ede fef pivot after the octave Ozymandias by Percy Bysshe Shelley I met a traveller from an antique land Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone Stand in the desert . . . Near them, on the sand, Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown, And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command, Tell that its sculptor well those passions read Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things, The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed: And on the pedestal these words appear: "My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!" Nothing beside remains. Round the decay Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare The lone and level sands stretch far away. Tennyson's Sonnet steps out of the 14 line standard adding a 15th line in an octave - septet frame. It also repeats specific end words within the frame. Alfred Lord Tennyson 1809 – 1892, the Victorian poet is among the most popular British poets of his time. The elements of the Tennyson's Sonnet are: framed with an octave followed by a septet (7 lines) not a sestet. metric, iambic pentameter rhymed, rhyme scheme a¹ba²cdccd efea²ba¹fe (the a rhyme is a repetition of end word only, not entire line) pivot after L10 The Kraken by Alfred Lord Tennyson Below the thunders of the upper deep; Far, far beneath in the abysmal sea, His ancient, dreamless, uninvaded sleep The Kraken sleepeth: faintest sunlights About his shadowy sides: above him swell Huge sponges of millennial growth and height; And far away into the sickly light, From many a wondrous grot and secret cell Unnumbered and enormous polypi Winnow with giant arms the slumbering green. There hath he lain for ages and will lie Battening upon huge sea-worms in his sleep, Until the latter fire shall heat the deep; Then once by man and angels to be seen, In roaring he shall rise and on the surface die.
  7. Benjamin

    Mad Dog Lane

    Beyond the droning town and mocking boys with mountain bikes and aerosols. The deaf man led his placid gypsy horse. Between a rubbish tip and high-banked railway tracks. Along the frog-spawned dyke: laid green like some old fetid moat. Past world-war concrete plinths, devoid of guns; long overgrown with masks of bramble and tall grass. Oblivious of crowded trains that screamed to who knows where. They walked into the cattle arch's mouth and vanished: through a portal of sunlight, to saner pastures on the other side.
  8. Another dirty martini, please “Two bottles of Boone's Farm peach wine and he called me to the couch. His head on my thigh, I stroked his hair -- what the Navy let us have! That was all we did on peach wine. “Long watches in the engine room and I called him to the bench. I stood behind him, hips to his back and my arms across his chest. That was all we did on the ship. “I saw his Florida mug shot just last night; his victims were 12 and 16. My heart stopped again, just like the very first time that I was ravished by his eyes.” May 2013
  9. I am posting this now due to the news that his remains are to be exhumed and examined to determine his cause of death; the dictator Pinochet MIGHT have had this poet silenced. (Meridian Hill is a large park in DC.) http://www.euronews.com/2013/04/08/nobel-laureate-naruda-s-remains-to-be-exhumed-in-chile/ I am shocked to learn that you are a Communist: this matters in 1992. El poeta: el, masculine; poeta, feminine; that's something. I bring you to Meridian Hill, near the statue of Jeanne d'Arc, though she might have been too young, even for you. You are a bi-lingual edition, naturally. Mis novios de mis noches did not, cumulatively, teach me very much, it seems. How sad. Only one of the fountains works. Its spray keeps cleanly to itself. There is no wind; the face of the water sleeps. Bright but not oppressive: the weather, and not the Salvadoran hiding in the shade. He is more shadow than he is flesh. Before sitting, I take the view at the rail: the cascade is trim and clean; nothing but foam down the thirteen steps. I sit facing the butt of Jeanne's horse. I see the sword in her hand and I ask, "How Christian is that?" I am in profile to the shady one. He spreads his legs and cups himself, looking through dark bangs and dark eyes. I nod. He stirs at my suggestion, almond eyes and high cheeks. He sees you in my hands and he passes by. Twenty years later I don't now give a fig that you were a Communist, just that you blew my chance for poetry. October 2012
  10. Tinker

    Acritic Verse

    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Greek Verse Acritic Verse, Greek-"song of the frontiersmen” is the heroic or epic poetry of 10th century Byzantium. This poetic genre emerged from an almost continuous state of warfare. It was composed as first hand experiences in narratives of recitation, or in a simple, recurring, cadence that was easy to remember and pass on. It set up the beginnings of modern Greek verse. Digenes Akrites is the most famous of the Acritic songs, an epic narrative. I found this fragment with translation at Wikipedia. Below is an excerpt from the translation of the Escorial manuscript, lines 32-42, by E.M. Jeffreys (pp. 241–2): εκαβαλίκευσαν, 'ς τόν κάμπον κατεβαίνουν. Ώς δράκοντες εσύριζαν και ως λέοντες εβρύχουντα και ώς αετοί επέτουντα και εσμίξαν οι δύο. Και τότε να ειδής πόλεμον καλών παλληκαρίων και από της μάχης της πολλής κρούσιν διασυντόμως και από τον κρύπον τον πολύν και από το δός και λάβε οι κάμποι φόβον είχασιν και τα βουνά αηδονούσαν, το αίμαν εκατέρεεν εις τα σκαλόλουρά των και ο ίδρος τους εξέβαινε απάνω απ'τα λουρίκια. Ήτον γάρ του Κωνσταντή γοργότερος ο μαύρος, και θαυμαστός νεώτερος ήτον ο They mounted at once and they came to the battlefield. They hissed like serpents, they roared like lions, They soared like eagles, and the two clashed. And then you could see a fight between fine brave youths. In the heat of the battle they struck continuously, and from the great clashing and the cut and thrust trees were uprooted and the sun was darkened, Blood flowed down over their horse-trappings and their sweat ran out over their breastplates. Constantine’s black horse was speedier, and its rider was a marvellous young man.</table>
  11. Explore the Craft of Writing Arabic Verse The Masnavi or Mathnawi is a long narrative, the ancient Middle Eastern epic form dates back to the 8th century. Although it is believed to originally be Persian, Masnavi's have been composed in Persian, Turkish, Urdu and Arabic (sometimes called the Muzdawwidj). The great poet Rumi used the stanzaic form to write 6 books containing 25000 verses which he titled Mathnawi. I am not sure if the books are named for the form or the form was named from the books, probably the latter. Apparently the Sufi Whirling Dervishes use verse from the books in prayer. The elements of the Masnavi or Mathnawi or Muzdawwidj are: a narrative, an epic. Composed with one of three themes, a heroic tale, religious or didactic story or a romantic tale. Long, much longer than any ghazal which usually ends after a maximum of 15 couplets. The Masnavi are usually in the hundreds or even thousands of couplets. Stanzaic, written in rhyming couplets. The couplets are complete and closed with one exception, the Arabic Masnavi or Muzdawwidj is written in triplets, complete and closed. Rhymed, the rhyme is never to be repeated throughout the poem rhyme aa bb cc dd ee ff gg etc. , in Arabic the rhyme is aaa bbb ccc ddd eee etc… Syllabic, Persian Masnavi stick to a strict 11 syllables per line. This tradition loosens up a bit in Turkish, Urdu and Arabic. Composed with alliteration, especially the Arabic Masnavi or Muzdawwidj. Just a Man
  12. Tinker


    Explore the Craft of Writing African Verse The Takhmis or Long-measure Verse is the 19th century Swahili version of a devotional Arabic stanzaic form of the same name. The Arabic Takhmis (to make five) dates back to the 18th century. In the Arabic form, L1-L3 of the stanza made up of 5 single hemistiches serves as a comtemporary expansion of L4-L5 which is verse written by an earlier poet, similar to the Glosa. The Swahili version appears to double up the hemistiches and most often is written by a single poet. The elements of the Arabic Takhmis are: lyrical devotion. stanzaic, written in 5 single hemistiches with the last 2 hemistiches adapted from earlier work of another poet, rhyme scheme aaaax bbbbx x being unrhymed. The elements of the Swahili Takhmis are: either a narrative or a lyrical medition. stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains syllabic, with at least 15 syllables, the line should be in 2 hemistiches and all lines should be approximately the same length. rhymed, aaax bbbx cccx etc. NPEOPP African Poetic Genres and Forms Insult Poetry Mawaddes Muyaka Praise Poem Qe'ne Shairi Takhmis Utendi
  13. Tinker

    Utendi or Utenzi

    Explore the Craft of Writing African Verse The Utendi or Untenzi (Swahili meaning deed or act) is a Swahili stanzaic form that I first found at Vole Central that is a Zejel without the Mudanza. The form is usually a narrative and should tell a story. Swahili epics appear in this form. The elements of the Utendi are: African Poetic Genres and Forms a narrative. stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains. syllabic, 8 syllable lines. rhymed, rhyme aaab cccb dddb etc. The b rhyme is a linking rhyme between stanzas. example from Vita Vya Wadachi Part 12: Stanzas 1 & 2 Utenzi wa Vita vya Wadachi Kutamalaki Mrima BISMILLAHI Ghaghara alWahidi - lKahari mwinyi kuhui shajari na jinni na insiya Yu pweke ARRAHAMANI wala hayuko wa thani mruzuku duniani ila ni yeye mmoya The German Conquest of the Swahili Coast IN THE NAME OF GOD, the Forgiving, the One, the Dominant, the giver of life to plants, to spirits and to mankind. He is alone THE COMPASSIONATE, there is none other that provides for the world but Him alone. Devil's Bridge A devil's pact as it is told, he'd help build a bridge, for first soul to traverse the viaduct bold. So goes the ancient folk story. Strong bodies and masons of stone with fieldstone and hard granite honed, cut and fit rock, worked to the bone. A labor from hell to glory Once done, the devised, dry-stone span arched over the river as planned, now for the payback of one man. Who will be consiliatory? A goat is baited by thrown bread to step upon the bridge instead. the devil raged, he was misled. in the end, complicitory. Today the arched stone bridge still stands, a testament to grit and bands of like minded folks joining hands. Out witting the signatory. ~~Judi Van Gorder Insult Poetry Mawaddes Muyaka Praise Poem Qe'ne Shairi Takhmis Utendi
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    Romance / Romancillo

    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Spanish Verse Romance Verso is one of the most popular Spanish forms from the 15th century. It is the Spanish version of the Ballad. It is a narrative written in even number lines of 8 syllables using assonant rhyme (vowel sounds are repeated regardless of the consonants before and after). These poems can be found equally written by academics, jonguelers as well as common men and touch every arena of Spanish life. The elements of Romance Verse are:: a narrative, it tells a story. stanzaic, written in even number line which could be quatrains, sixains, etc. syllabic, all lines are written in 8 syllables each. rhymed, only assonant rhyme is used, xaxa xbxb xcxc etc., x being unrhymed. written in several variations. Romance Double simply uses alternate assonant rhyme rather than leaving the alternate lines free if rhyme. The elements of the Romance Double are: a narrative, it tells a story. stanzaic, written in even number line which could be quatrains, sixains, etc. syllabic, all lines are written in 8 syllables each. rhymed, only assonant rhyme is used, abab cdcd efef etc. Romance Heroic, Romance Endecasilabo, or Romance Real is defined by its used of Italianate lines. The Romance Heroic or Real is: a narrative, it tells a story. stanzaic, written in even number line which could be quatrains, sixains, etc. syllabic, all lines are written in Italianate lines, random 7-11 syllable lines. rhymed, only assonant rhyme is used, xaxa xbxb xcxc etc., x being unrhymed. Romancero is Spain’s epic version of the Ballad. Since the early Spanish epics were written in prose, the Romancero distinguished itself in verse. It is narrative written in verse and can be found as far back as when the in the nation we now know as Spain was Latin. Like most Ballad forms, it began with folk verse of the common man and developed into a literary form, a conscious art. The oldest Romanceros are epic in size and theme. The elements of the Romancero are: Narrative verse, often epic in size and theme. Syllabic, lines of 11 syllables or more Rhymed with assonant rhyme throughout. A source refers to El Cid as a Chanson de Geste, a French epic genre however, to me it appears to be more appropriately categorized as a Romancero. The Romancillo is a short line version of Romance Verse. The elements of the Romancillo are: a narrative, it tells a story. stanzaic, written in even number line which could be quatrains, sixains, etc. syllabic, all lines are written in 5 or 6 syllables each. rhymed, only assonant rhyme is used, xaxa xbxb xcxc etc., x being unrhymed.
  15. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Three Poetry Groups Poetry can be broken down into three main groups or directions, lyrical, narrative and dramatic. "Traditionally, the lyric expressed personal emotion, the narrative propelled characters through a plot, the dramatic presented an enactment." New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Although all have their roots in music, all three were originally sung and chanted, the musical element has always been secondary to the narrative and the dramatic while lyrical poetry is often still sung. "Lyrical poetry retains most prominently the elements which date back to its origins in musical expression singing, chanting and repetition with musical accompaniment." NPOPP. Lewis Turco's Book of Forms suggests that it is a matter of voice. Lyrical poetry is the poet speaking to him or herself or nobody, narrative is the poet speaking through a narrator to an audience and dramatic verse is the poet speaking through character interaction he/she has created. Lyrical Verse The vast majority of poems written are "lyrical verse", written in the first person as an emotional or subjective (emphasizing the personal or individual) response to an experience. But, even narrative or dramatic poetry can sometimes be categorized as also lyrical as in the case of the ballad, a lyrical narrative. Appropriately the name "lyrical" originates from "lyre" (a musical instrument). Most poetry began by being sung or chanted around campfires, in Greek theatre or later by the troubadours, but lyrical poetry took a turn in the 15th and 16th centuries when it began to be composed to be read from the written word and it took on a whole new genre. The musical qualities of lyrical poetry do not mean that the poetry is written always to be sung, nor does it mean that the poetry possesses musical characteristics as harmony, pitch, syncopation, counterpoint, and other structural forms of a tonal, musical line or sequence ( although those qualities can be present). However it does mean the poetry "employs specific themes, meters, attitudes, images and myths". NPOPP Although the term "lyrical verse" is too general to specifically define, its qualities can be highlighted. Here is an attempt to describe lyrical poetry by renown poets and with these descriptions in mind, lyrical poetry would probably be best written as a combination of some or all of the following: The characteristics of lyrical poetry focus on an image or an object, the meaning of a concept, an experience or event, a talent or encounter. It is often a meditation. Winter (1595) When icicles hang by the wall And Dick the shepherd blows his nail, And Tome bears logs into the hall, And milk comes frozen home in pail, When blood is nipp'd, and ways be foul, Then nightly sings the staring owl, Tu-who; Tu-whit, tu-who - a merry note, While greasy Joan doth keel the pot. When all aloud the wind doth blow, And coughing drowns the parson's saw, And birds sit brooding in the snow, And Marian's nose looks red and raw, When roasted crabs hiss in the bowl, Then nightly sings the staring owl, Tu-who; Tu-whit, tu-who-a merry note, While greasy Joan doth keel the pot. ---William Shakespeare (1554-1616) Lyrical verse is: Hope is the thing with feathers (1862} Hope is the thing with feathers That perches in the soul, And sings the tune without the words, And never stops at all, And sweetest in the gale is heard; And sore must be the storm That could abash the little bird That kept so many warm. I've heard it in the chillest land, And on the strangest sea; Yet, never, in extremity, It asked a crumb of me. --- Emily Dickinson 1830-1886 note: #s differ depending on the collection. T.H. Johnson #254 / R.W. Franklin #314 "brief". (Poe) "one, the parts mutually support and explain each other, all in their proportion harmonizing with, and supporting the purpose and known influence of metrical arrangement." (Coleridge) the "spontaneous over flow of powerful feelings". (Wordsworth) "an intensely subjective and personal expression" (Coleridge) an "inverted action of mind upon will" (Schopenhauer). "the utterance that is overheard" (Mill) " a short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker. Often written in first person and often with song like immediacy and emotional force". Donald Hall Narrative Verse simply tells a story and is most often found in epic form. It is often objective, distanced from the subject and usually written in the third person as an observer. It describes an event in time and place as it unfolds and is "rooted in local intention" or takes a particular point of view of the event. It often will dramatize the crisis or climax and can be narrative, dramatic and lyrical in presentation, such as the ballad. The story telling can be fact or fiction and is presented in verse to separate from other types of literature. Lewis Turco in his Book of Forms says as a matter of voice, the story narrated or told by a third person. Verse forms compatible as narratives are the epics, ballads, Blank Verse, and the French Pastorale, and the Lai or Lay family of forms. In the Art and Craft of Poetry, Michael Bugeja tells us there are six elements to narrative poetry. Here is my shorter version of Bugeja's concept.All narratives should include: Topic: the subject must have a beginning, middle and end which naturally creates a sequence of events and provides a sense of passage of time. And something has to happen in that passage of time, there is action in a narrative. Theme: "an undercurrent of meaning runs through a narrative" Bujeia. The story is told in a sequence which logically builds to a conclusion. (the conclusion is fore told by the illustration of events) Voice: someone has to tell the story. If it is told by a narrator, the story is told as coming from I or we (not the poet), if the theme is happy the narrator must be happy, if angry the narrator must be angry..etc. If the story is told by a storyteller, the story is told entirely in the third person. The tones in the voice of the storyteller remain detached, the tone of voice connected to the theme belongs to the characters in the story. Viewpoint: Every story can be told from a different viewpoint. If the poem will tell the story from the viewpoint of the poet, a narrator should be the voice. If the poem will tell the story from a viewpoint different from the poet's the voice should be one of a storyteller. Use whichever will give the best impact. Moment: This does not imply the moment in time itself (winter, time of chivalry, September 11, last night), nor past tense versus present tense but, "when the reader is allowed to enter the story". (1.) immediately with the experience fresh and emotional as if we were there, here the narrator can only describe the events as they happen without comment. (2.) relatively close to the event giving perspective to the meaning of the details and scenes. In this moment the narrator describes events from the character's point of view and provides his/her own comments. And (3.) much later, removed from the event when it happened, where our perspective is more important than the details. Therefore the narrator or storyteller comments on the events putting them in perspective. (you really have to read the book) Ending: either open where the conclusion is not explained but simply illustrated or closed with the conclusion wrapping up the loose ends. Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred Lord Tennyson Half a league, half a league, Half a league onward, All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. "Forward the Light Brigade! Charge for the guns!" he said. Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. Forward, the Light Brigade!" Was there a man dismay'd? Not tho' the soldier knew Some one had blunder'd. Theirs not to make reply, Theirs not to reason why, Theirs but to do and die. Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them, Cannon in front of them Volley'd and thunder'd; Storm'd at with shot and shell, Boldly they rode and well, Into the jaws of Death, Into the mouth of hell Rode the six hundred. Flash'd all their sabres bare, Flash'd as they turn'd in air Sabring the gunners there, Charging an army, while All the world wonder'd. Plunged in the battery-smoke Right thro' the line they broke; Cossack and Russian Reel'd from the sabre-stroke Shatter'd and sunder'd. Then they rode back, but not, Not the six hundred. Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them, Cannon behind them Volley'd and thunder'd; Storm'd at with shot and shell, While horse and hero fell, They that had fought so well Came thro' the jaws of Death, Back from the mouth of hell, All that was left of them, Left of six hundred. When can their glory fade? O the wild charge they made! All the world wonder'd. Honor the charge they made! Honor the Light Brigade, Noble six hundred! Some Narrative Forms Acritic Verse Ballad Bergerette Bylina Choka Chu Ci Duma Epics Idyll Kyrielle Lai Lai Nouveau Minute Poem Nibelungen Onegin Stanza Ottova Rima Utendi Virelai Vilelai Ancien Dramatic verse speaks through a character. Although it too, got its beginnings from music and chant, just as the lyrical and narrative verse did, dramatic poetry characterizes the song or words. The dramatic poem, like the other two comes in all styles, shapes and sizes and can at the same time be dramatic, lyrical and or narrative. How is that for mucking up the definition? The primary thing to remember is the dramatic poem characterizes. The poem is told through one or more characters voice, perspective and language. It is the voice of the poet speaking through the parameters of one or more characters developed by the poet. Personality, motive and viewpoint are the focus. The poem is written though dialogue. The forms are those of drama itself, tragedy, comedy, tragicomedy, the monologue, dialogue, soliloquy. Clown Song from Act V Scene I Twelfth Night This is the final monologue of the play; the clown addresses the audience. When that I was and a little tiny boy, With hey, ho, the wind and the rain; A foolish thing was but a toy, For the rain it raineth every day. But when I came to man's estate, With hey, ho, the wind and the rain; 'Gainst knaves and thieves men shut their gates, For the rain it raineth every day. But when I came, alas! to wive, With hey, ho, the wind and the rain; By swaggering could I never thrive, For the rain it raineth every day. But when I came unto my beds, With hey, ho, the wind and the rain; With toss-pots still had drunken heads, For the rain it raineth every day. A great while ago the world begun, With hey, ho, the wind and the rain; But that's all one, our play is done, And we'll strive to please you every day. ---William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Some Dramatic Forms Comedic Dialogue Eclogue Eclogue Débat Dub Poetry Fabliau Kakawin Litany Persona Monologue Soliloquy Tenso or Tenzone
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    Explore the Craft of Writing Greek Verse An Idyll, from the Greek, eidyllion - "little picture" can be one of two genres of poetry. An Idyll can be a short pastoral poem, a fanciful poem describing an ideal country scene, with nymphs and shepherds frolicking in the field. The original "Idylls" date back to 300 B.C. by Greek poet, Theocritus. As a genre rather than verse or stanzaic form, the structure or frame is at the discretion of the poet. A pastoral Idyll is lyrical. Idyll by Sigfried Sassoon (English poet, 1886-1967) In the grey summer garden I shall find you With day-break and the morning hills behind you. There will be rain-wet roses; stir of wings; And down the wood a thrush that wakes and sings. Not from the past you'll come, but from that deep Where beauty murmurs to the soul asleep: And I shall know the sense of life re-born From dreams into the mystery of morn Where gloom and brightness meet. And standing there Till that calm song is done, at last we'll share The league-spread, quiring symphonies that are Joy in the world, and peace, and dawn's one star. An Idyll can also be an epic poem, a longer poem that tells a story about ancient heroes. The structure of which is at the discretion of the poet. An epic Idyll is a narrative. Ulysses by Alfred Lord Tennyson It little profits that an idle king, By this still hearth, among these barren crags, Match'd with an agèd wife, I mete and dole Unequal laws unto a savage race, That hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me. I cannot rest from travel: I will drink Life to the lees: All times I have enjoyed Greatly, have suffer'd greatly, both with those That loved me, and alone, on shore, and when Thro' scudding drifts the rainy Hyades Vext the dim sea: I am become a name; For always roaming with a hungry heart Much have I seen and known; cities of men And manners, climates, councils, governments, Myself not least, but honour'd of them all; And drunk delight of battle with my peers, Far on the ringing plains of windy Troy. I am a part of all that I have met; Yet all experience is an arch wherethro' Gleams that untravell'd world whose margin fades For ever and forever when I move. How dull it is to pause, to make an end, To rust unburnish'd, not to shine in use! As tho' to breathe were life! Life piled on life Were all too little, and of one to me Little remains: but every hour is saved From that eternal silence, something more, A bringer of new things; and vile it were For some three suns to store and hoard myself, And this gray spirit yearning in desire To follow knowledge like a sinking star, Beyond the utmost bound of human thought. This is my son, mine own Telemachus, To whom I leave the sceptre and the isle,— Well-loved of me, discerning to fulfil This labour, by slow prudence to make mild A rugged people, and thro' soft degrees Subdue them to the useful and the good. Most blameless is he, centred in the sphere Of common duties, decent not to fail In offices of tenderness, and pay Meet adoration to my household gods, When I am gone. He works his work, I mine. There lies the port; the vessel puffs her sail: There gloom the dark, broad seas. My mariners, Souls that have toil'd, and wrought, and thought with me— That ever with a frolic welcome took The thunder and the sunshine, and opposed Free hearts, free foreheads—you and I are old; Old age hath yet his honor and his toil; Death closes all: but something ere the end, Some work of noble note, may yet be done, Not unbecoming men that strove with Gods. The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks: The long day wanes: the slow moon climbs: the deep Moans round with many voices. Come, my friends, 'T is not too late to seek a newer world. Push off, and sitting well in order smite The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths Of all the western stars, until I die. It may be that the gulfs will wash us down: It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles, And see the great Achilles, whom we knew. Tho' much is taken, much abides; and tho' We are not now that strength which in old days Moved earth and heaven, that which we are, we are; One equal temper of heroic hearts, Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.
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    Explore the Craft of Writing Greek Verse Alcaics "gives an impression of wonderful vigour and spontaneity". The 1911 Edition Encyclopedia. The stanzaic form is attributed to the poet Alceaus 6th century BC and is an Aeolic classic meter. The elements of the Alcaics stanzaic form are: stanzaic, any number of quatrains may be written. metric, quantitative verse. The first 3 lines are 5 metric feet and the last line, 4 metric feet with a specific combination of trochees and dactyls. There are variations on the rhythm of the Alcaics quatrain but the following (one source refers to it as the dactyl Alcaic quatrain) seems to me the most common as demonstrated in Alfred Lord Tennyson's Milton. (acephalous refers to the missing 1st syllable of an iambic foot) L1 & L2 acephalous iamb, 2 trochees and 2 dactyls; L3 acephalous iamb, 4 trochees; L4 2 dactyls 2 trochees in that order Quantitative Verse L-Ls-Ls-Lss-Lss L-Ls-Ls-Lss-Lss L-Ls-Ls-Ls-Ls Lss-Lss-Ls-Ls Milton Part I by Alfred Lord Tennyson 1891 O mighty-mouth'd inventor of harmonies, O skill'd to sing of Time or Eternity, God-gifted organ-voice of England, Milton, a name to resound for ages; Whose Titan angels, Gabriel, Abdiel, Starr'd from Jehovah's gorgeous armories, Tower, as the deep-domed empyrean Rings to the roar of an angel onset-- Me rather all that bowery loneliness, The brooks of Eden mazily murmuring, And bloom profuse and cedar arches Charm, as a wanderer out in ocean, Where some refulgent sunset of India Streams o'er a rich ambrosial ocean isle, And crimson-hued the stately palm-woods Whisper in odorous heights of even.
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    Classical Hendecameter

    Explore the Craft of Writing Greek Poetry The Classical Hendecameter is one of the 4 classic meters of Aeolic verse from the 8th-6th centuries BC Greek Dark Ages. It was used generously many centuries later by the Engish poet Alfred Lord Tennyson. It is an 11 syllable line written with a trochee followed by a dactyl and 3 trochees in that order. The first and last trochees can be spondees. In Greek, quantitative verse Ls-Lss-Ls-Ls-Ls L= long sound or syllable s= short sound or syllable or LL-Lss-Ls-Ls-LL In English accentual syllabic verse applies Su-Suu-Su-Su-Su S= stressed syllable u= unstressed syllable or SS-Suu-Su-Su-SS Milton Part II Hendecasyllabics -- Alfred Lord Tennyson 1891 O you chorus of indolent reviewers, Irresponsible, indolent reviewers, Look, I come to the test, a tiny poem All composed in a meter of Catullus, All in quantity, careful of my motion, Like the skater on ice that hardly bears him, Lest I fall unawares before the people, Waking laughter in indolent reviewers. Should I flounder awhile without a tumble Thro' this metrification of Catullus, They should speak to me not without a welcome, All that chorus of indolent reviewers. Hard, hard, hard it is, only not to tumble, So fantastical is the dainty meter. Wherefore slight me not wholly, nor believe me Too presumptuous, indolent reviewers. O blatant Magazines, regard me rather - Since I blush to be laud myself a moment - As some rare little rose, a piece of inmost Horticultural art, or half-coquette-like Maiden, not to be greeted unbendingly. For Once, Then Something by Robert Frost Others taunt me with having knelt at well-curbs Always wrong to the light, so never seeing Deeper down in the well than where the water Gives me back in a shining surface picture Me myself in the summer heaven godlike Looking out of a wreath of fern and cloud puffs. Once, when trying with chin against a well-curb, I discerned, as I thought, beyond the picture, Through the picture, a something white, uncertain, Something more of the depths—and then I lost it. Water came to rebuke the too clear water. One drop fell from a fern, and lo, a ripple Shook whatever it was lay there at bottom, Blurred it, blotted it out. What was that whiteness? Truth? A pebble of quartz? For once, then, something.
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    IV. Hindi Region: The Doha

    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Indian Verse Regional Verse IV.Hindi poetry is a descendant of Sanskrit and is found primarily in the North, West and Central India. Hindi is the official language of India. The region is known for its romantic poetry. The Doha is a Hindi stanzaic form employing a rhyming couplet with long syllabic lines.The Doha is also used in Urdu verse. This form steps away from the Hindi tradition of romantic verse and is often written as didactic or used in longer narrative verse. The elements of the Doha are: stanzaic, written in any number of couplets. syllabic, each line is made up of 24 syllables and is paused by caesura at the end of the 13th syllable, making the line two phrases of 13 and 11 syllables. The couplet can be arranged as a quatrain breaking the line at the caesura. rhymed, aa bb cc commonly used for proverbs and/or for longer narratives or didactic poetry. Vanquished in the Night by Judi Van Gorder The starless night drops down into the silent forest, ----------- small creatures scurry to secure safe haven. Peerless predators with eyes accustom to the dark, ------------ stalk their weaker prey with guile until craven. Regional Verse Forms
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    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Italian Verse Raccontino (Italian meaning narrator or story teller) is a poetic narrative written in any number of couplets linked by a single rhyme. Found at Writer's Café. I've been unable to find a history or original example of this form. One source on line suggests this is an English form but no time frame is indicated nor other reasons given for this assumption. Because the name has Italian roots, is syllabic rather than metric (more typical of Italian poetry than English poetry) and carries a single rhyme (which is much easier in Italian than English), it better fits the profile of an Italian stanzaic form than an English form. So I lean toward Italian roots. The elements of the Raccontino are: narrative, tells a story. written in any number of couplets. syllabic. The number of syllable is set by the first line. Whatever number of syllables occurs in the first line should continue throughout the poem. rhymed xa xa xa xa xa xa etc. x being unrhymed.
  21. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Italian Verse The Ottavo Rima (rhyme of eight) or Sonnetto Rispetto (little song of respect) is believed to have originated in religious verse in the 13th century. It has been called the 3rd Italian Sonnet, although it is not a sonnet at all. It is traditionally a narrative epic often written in a series of octaves not the lyrical meditation contained within the quatorzain of the sonnet. This form is best suited for "blending serious, comic and satirical attitudes and mingling narrative and discursive models.... It is the accumulation of rhyme, reaching a crescendo with the third repetition, which prepares the reader for the neat summation, the acute observation, or the epigrammatic twist which comes with the final couplet." NPOPP It was the Italian, Pulci, in his Morgante Maggiore (1487), who brought a unique twist to the form, in a kind of mock-heroic, or half-serious, half-burlesque, style with which ottava rima has been most commonly identified. It was Pulci who influenced Frere and Byron when they resurrected the form in England two centuries later, however the most prominent example of Ottava Rima in English literature is Byron's Don Juan (1819-1824). The eight, eleven syllable, rhymed lines carry the same frame as the Strambotto Tuscano but the forms differ since the Strambotto is usually limited to one octave and is lyrical in nature while the Ottava Rima is a narrative and is most often written in more than one octave. The elements of the Ottava Rima or Sonnetto Rispetto are: a fast narrative. stanzaic, written in any number of octaves. metered, most often iambic pentameter sometimes tetrameter. Its Spanish counterpart, the Ottava Real is hendecasyllabic (11 syllable lines). rhymed, Rhyme scheme is abababcc. best for blending serious and satirical attitudes. composed with the final couplet that sums up and brings a twist or enlightenment to the content of the stanza. The entire text of Don Juan' Canto I is on line and can be read at: Poem Hunter from Don Juan, by Lord Byron (1819-1824) 1st 4 stanzas Canto I I I WANT a hero: an uncommon want, When every year and month sends forth a new one, Till, after cloying the gazettes with cant, The age discovers he is not the true one; Of such as these I should not care to vaunt, 5 I 'll therefore take our ancient friend Don Juan- We all have seen him, in the pantomime, Sent to the devil somewhat ere his time. II. Vernon, the butcher Cumberland, Wolfe, Hawke, Prince Ferdinand, Granby, Burgoyne, Keppel, Howe, Evil and good, have had their tithe of talk, And filled their sign-posts then, like Wellesley now; Each in their turn like Banquo's monarchs stalk, Followers of fame, "nine farrow" of that sow: France, too, had Buonaparté and Dumourier Recorded in the Moniteur and Courier. III Barnave, Brissot, Condorcet, Mirabeau, Pétion, Clootz, Danton, Marat, La Fayette Were French, and famous people, as we know; And there were others, scarce forgotten yet, Joubert, Hoche, Marceau, Lannes, Desaix, Moreau, With many of the military set, Exceedingly remarkable at times, But not at all adapted to my rhymes. IV. Nelson was once Britannia's god of War, And still should be so, but the tide is turn'd; There's no more to be said of Trafalgar. 'Tis with our hero quietly inurn'd; Because the army's grown more popular, At which the naval people are concern'd; Besides, the Prince is all for the land-service, Forgetting Duncan, Nelson, Howe, and Jervis.
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    Terza Rima and Capitolo

    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Italian Verse Terza Rima, "third rhyme", adapted from the Italian poets of the 13th century is a stanzaic form that employs a pattern of interlocking rhyme. Some connect the form's origins to the three-lined Ritournel, which was an early Italian form of popular poetry, but others to the Sirventes of the Provencal troubadours. It was most likely the Tuscan poets of the 13th century who tended to emulate the metrical patterns of their predecessors, the Provencals. Written in tercets of interlocking rhyme known as the Sicilian tercet, there is no limit on the number of stanzas in the poem, however it is difficult to divide without breaking the continuity of the rhyme. It was Dante's, The Divine Comedy written in 1307, that brought the Terza Rima from folk-verse, to a major poetic form. The Capitolo is framed with the same metric, rhyme and stanzaic structure as the Terza Rima. In 15th century Italy when the Terza Rima adopted didactic subjects, it was called a Capitolo but by the 19th century the term Capitolo was used for a Terza Rima frame with a satirical or light subject. The elements of the Terza Rima and Capitolo are: narrative and/or lyrical poetry. in English usually iambic pentameter but can be written in tetrameter. stanzaic, with any number of tercets that interlock by rhyme. The poem is concluded by a single final line that rhymes with the 2nd line of the preceding tercet. rhymed in an interlocking rhyme scheme aba bcb cdc ded . . . until the conclusion when the end line rhymes with the 2nd line of the last tercet. when written in a satirical tone, is called a Capitolo. The Bridge at Tsavo,1898 by David Parsley The Rishal is a recent invented form which appears to be a chained version of the Terza Rima without a linking rhyme. It was created by Chindarella at All Poetry. The elements of the Rishal are: Stanzaic, written in 3 or more tercets with a concluding single line, the same as the Terza Rima. Syllabic rather than metric, lines of 10 syllables each, (iambic pentameter without the iambic pattern requirement). L1 of each stanza is written in 2 hemistiches. Rhymed, internal rhyme is employed in L2 of each stanza, the 5th syllable of the line rhyming with the end syllable, (I imagine a little flexibility in the placement of the internal rhyme could be overlooked by other than the purist.) Rhyme scheme a (b-b) a / c ( d-d) c / e (f-f) e / etc . The single end line is unrhymed. Written in a chain from stanza to stanza by repeating the 2nd hemistich of L1 of the previous stanza in the 1st hemistich of L1 of the next stanza and so on. . . including the last single line repeating the 2nd hemistich of L1 of the previous stanza as the 1st hemistich of the single line
  23. Tinker


    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Epic Japanese Verse The choka (長歌 long poem) was the epic, story telling form of Japanese poetry from the 1st to the 13th century, known as the Waka period. Storytelling was rare in the Japanese language during the Waka period although it is found in the Man'yôshû and even the Kokinshú. Most often the Japanese poet would write epics in classical Chinese. Still, the occasional poet with a story to tell would tackle the choka, the earliest of which can be traced back to the 1st century. It describes a battle and is 149 lines long. Originally chokas were sung, but not in the Western sense of being sung. The oral tradition of the choka was to recite the words in a high pitch. The elements of the choka are: a narrative. syllabic. Composed of any number of couplets made up of alternating 5-7 onji (sound syllables) per line. In English we can only treat the onji as a syllable. unrhymed. concluded by a hanka, an envoy in the form of the waka, 31 onji or sound syllables in 5 lines with 5-7-5-7-7. "han" meaning repetition, the hanka is to summarize the choka. The word tanka is often substituted for hanka or waka (they are all rooted in the same 31 syllable, 5 line form, their root seems to make them interchangeable with only subtle differences to separate them.) Here is my attempt to provide a highly condensed version inspired by the history and features of the choka. Tale of Honor by Judi Van Gorder Kilimanjaro fresh snow crunches under foot narrow mountain path traveled by lone samurai seeker of vengeance returned from war, tracks his prey, young brother's killers. . . . at rise of the waning moon sneak thieves strike village novice boy challenged jackals dagger drawn thrust low youngster's entrails ripped and spilled cowards run to hills with sun high in winter sky sibling soldier stalks, prowling panther poised to kill disciplined, steadfast trained warrior against pack jackals ring soldier jab, snap, samurai honor blood on Kilimanjaro
  24. Tinker

    The Edda Measures

    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Nordic Verse Edda Measures The Edda Measures, (Edda meaning poetry or poetic tradition), are 2 books that have survived from 13th century Iceland. The first, the Elder Eddas, is an anthology of 34, 9th to 12th century Norse poems interspersed with prose primarily dealing with Norse mythology, recorded by Saxo Grammaticus. (a Christian cleric ) The second, the Younger Eddas, is attributed to the great Norse skald (poet) Snorri Sturluson , (1178-1241) Iceland. Isn't that a great name? Snorri creates a handbook or manual of "how to" write in the pattern and theme of the Norse poet. He offers not just a "how to", but also includes prose and poetry. The Norse version of the creation is found here as well as information on ancient poets. The writings found within the books have three common characteristics, a mythological, ethical or heroic Teutonic theme, a simple style, anonymous and objective, and they never reveal the feelings or attitudes of the poet. The elements of the Edda Measures are: narrative. They tell a tale. metric, accentual. Use rhythm of everyday language. stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains. The lines of the quatrain are developed from ancient writings of shorter lines making up an octave and being doubled in two phrases of longer Germanic lines. often written with caesura or break mid way in each line. composed with internal rhyme but never end rhymed. alliterative. Alliteration accentuates stress which is a standard of accentual verse. objective, the emotion of the poet is not communicated. often written employing kenning. (a sort of metaphor, using two nouns to name something, like "horse of the sea" instead of "boat"). found in 3 structural variations: Old Story Measure or fornyroislog, Speech Measure or malahattr and Song Measure or ljoahattr
  25. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Sonnet Sonnet Comparison Chart Russian Verse Onegin Stanza and the Pushkin Sonnet are both named for and originate from Russian poet, Alexander Pushkin and his 1825 novel in verse, Eugenij Onegin. Each stanza in the book was originally meant to serve as a mini chapter. The two forms are sometimes thought to be the same but basically these are two different verse forms from the same origin, using the same physical frame but with different intent. In its original form, it is narrative. stanzaic, (written within the context of other stanzas) and does not necessarily take a turn or volta. Technically the stanza wouldn't qualify as a sonnet. But the frame written in a single quatorzain (14 Lines) in lyrical verse, exhibits a turn or volta, and as long as it "sings" certainly qualifies as a sonnet. Note: The book was made into the movie "Onegin" in 1999 staring Ralph Feines and Liv Tyler. The elements of the Onegin stanza are: a narrative. stanzaic, written in any number of quatorzians (14 lines)composed of 3 quatrains and a concluding couplet. The 1st quatrain, introduces the main idea, the 2nd and 3rd quatrains develop the idea and the couplet is often a witty or instructional conclusion. metered, iambic tetrameter. rhymed. The rhyme scheme allows 5 rhymes and is varied by quatrain. The 1st quatrain is alternating rhyme, the 2nd is sequential rhyme, the 3rd is envelope rhyme and the stanza concludes with a rhyming couplet. Rhyme scheme abab ccdd effe gg. In Russian the rhyme also appears in a feminine-masculine pattern adding tension between syntax and rhyme. The a c and e rhyme are feminine while the b d f and g rhymes are masculine. In English I have found the feminine/masculine end pattern is often ignored. If you choose to write with the rise and fall end rhyme pattern, it may be easier to add an extra unstressed syllable to the line with the feminine rhyme. (Note: The book was originally written in Russian, which better accommodates the specifics of the rhyme.) The elements of the Pushkin Sonnet are: lyrical written in a single quatorzian composed of 3 quatrains and a concluding couplet. The 1st quatrain, introduces the main idea, the 2nd and 3rd quatrains develop the idea and a concluding couplet. metered, iambic tetrameter. rhymed. The rhyme scheme allows 5 rhymes and is varied by quatrain. The 1st quatrain is alternating rhyme, the 2nd is sequential rhyme, the 3rd is envelope rhyme and the stanza concludes with a rhyming couplet. Rhyme scheme abab ccdd effe gg. As in the stanza, for the purist, feminine rhyme could be used on the a c and e rhymes. has a turn or volta somewhere after the 2nd quatrain. When written as a lyrical meditation in 14 lines the form is best referred to as the Pushkin Sonnet. Just Lately by Goeffrey Le Voguer Just lately my whole thoughts are turning to words I wish I'd said: before your out bound ship was churning its white wake to some distant shore. I should have listened to the anchor and chain: the groans, the squeals, the rancor of inferred pain. “This is a time that cares not for a lover's mind!” For without you a bleakness enters my life; a creeping fog to tease and cling like Spanish moss on trees. And all our might-have-beens are centered in its grey form, set to release ghosts of missed opportunities. When written as a narrative in stanzaic form of more than one stanza it is best referred to as the Onegin Stanza Shadows at Dawn by Judi Van Gorder To change direction of the past would alter who I am today. Eliminate regrets and cast vague shadows on my current stay. Those injured by my actions then would now be also changed from when this magic mending did occur, I wonder how the lines would blur. The boy I left, that broke his heart moved on to find a better mate. If I had stayed we'd play with fate and sadly skip our trials apart. It's best to leave things done and gone a better way to see the dawn. I gave up school and chose to wed, no college paper dons my wall, yet there is comfort in my bed and my career has been my call. With triple figures for my pay I still find time to love and play. Scholastic ventures can be found without a formal classroom bound. Should I return to former days, the sheepskin prize, I'd give a try but that would really be a lie, I liked the journey in the maze. It's best to leave things done and gone, a brighter way to see the dawn. Although this life is only lent I'm grateful for this home called earth. My autumn days have all been spent it was a blink to now from birth. I have matured, I will allow, the winter seems less frigid now. I'm happy with the choices made with lots to do before I fade. I'll leave a list of things undone, without the dreams there is no me, yet winter does not mean I flee. I walk a path to find the sun and strive to thrive until I'm gone and can no longer see the dawn.
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