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Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry 1700s Poetic Movements Graveyard Poets, also called Churchyard Poets, were 18th century poets who focused their work on human mortality. The poems often took place in a graveyard. Thomas Gray is probably the best known of these poets. Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard Sonnet on the Death of Richard West by Thomas Gray In vain to me the smiling mornings shine, And red'ning Phobus lifts his golden fire; The birds in vain their amorous descant join; Or cheerful fields resume their green attire: These ears, alas! for other notes repine, A different object do these eyes require. My lonely anguish melts no heart but mine; And in my breast the imperfect joys expire. Yet morning smiles the busy race to cheer, And new-born pleasure brings to happier men: The fields to all their wonted tribute bear: To warm their little loves the birds complain: I fruitless mourn to him that cannot hear, And weep the more because I weep in vain. Romanticism was an 18th century movement in reaction the order and balance of the Augustan age. The romantics favored self expression, inspiration and unleashed imagination. It came at a time when the rights of the individual were being asserted. Poets had greater freedom to express themselves with the diminishing of patrons who sponsored the arts. There are many different views of exactly what Romanticism who the poets were but most agree that the names Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge , William Blake, Shelley, and Lord Byran should be included. Ode to the West Wind Part I by Percy Bysshe Shelley O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn's being, Thou, from whose unseen presence the leaves dead Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing, Yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic red, Pestilence-stricken multitudes: O thou, Who chariotest to their dark wintry bed The wingèd seeds, where they lie cold and low, Each like a corpse within its grave,until Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow| Her clarion o'er the dreaming earth, and fill (Driving sweet buds like flocks to feed in air) With living hues and odours plain and hill: Wild Spirit, which art moving everywhere; Destroyer and Preserver; hear, O hear! Scriblerus Club is really an association of poets rather than a movement or school. This club was a group of poets who regularly met during 1714 to satirise 'all the false tastes in learning'. Alexander Pope, John Arbuthnot, Jonathan Swift and John Gay were among the group. Acis and Galatea by John Gay Air. Love in her eyes sits playing, And sheds delicious death; Love on her lips is straying, And warbling in her breath; Love on her breast sits panting, And swells with soft desire; Nor grace nor charm is wanting To set the heart on fire. Air. O ruddier than the cherry! O sweeter than the berry! O Nymph more bright Than moonshine night, Like kidlings blithe and merry! Ripe as the melting cluster! No lily has such lustre;|Yet hard to tame As raging flame.
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Early 1800s Poetic Movements Classicism is a school of poetry known for its sense of formality and restrained emotion. Classical poets are noted to strive for perfection, their clarity of purpose, balance and use of elevated but not pompous language. The early 1800s saw a revival of Classicism although the term actually refers to poets of many eras who each built their work with respect and emulation of the first classical poets, the ancient Greeks and Romans, names such as Ovid, Homer, Horace, Catullus, Lucretius and Virgil. Classical poets are credited with the development of many thematic genres and forms. Great English poets who were considered among the best of Classical poets are Ben Jonson, Elegy; John Dryden Absalom and Architophel, Alexander Pope, Rape of the Lock; Samuel Johnson, The Vanity of Human Wishes and Matthew Arnold, The Scholar Gipsy. Elegy by Ben Jonson . Though beauty be the mark of praise, And yours of whom I sing be such As not the world can praise too much, Yet is 't your virtue now I raise. A virtue, like allay, so gone Throughout your form, as, though that move And draw and conquer all men's love, This sùbjects you to love of one. Wherein you triumph yet; because 'Tis of yourself, and that you use The noblest freedom, not to choose Against or faith or honor's laws. But who should less expect from you, In whom alone Love lives again? By whom he is restored to men, And kept, and bred, and brought up true. His falling temples you have reared, The withered garlands ta'en away; His altars kept from the decay That envy wished, and nature feared; And on them burn so chaste a flame, With so much loyalties' expense, As Love, t' acquit such excellence, Is gone himself into your name. And you are he; the deity To whom all lovers are designed That would their better objects find; Among which faithful troop am I. Who, as an offspring at your shrine, Have sung this hymn, and here entreat One spark of your diviner heat To light upon a love of mine. Which, if it kindle not, but scant Appear, and that to shortest view, Yet give me leave t' adore in you What I in her am grieved to want. Cockney Poetry was a term used by Blackwood Magazine 1817 England to describe poetry by poets from "humble" beginnings such as Leigh Hunt and John Keats. Abou Ben Adhem by James Leigh Hunt Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase!) Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace, And saw, within the moonlight in his room, Making it rich, and like a lily in bloom, An angel writing in a book of gold: Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold, And to the Presence in the room he said "What writest thou?" The vision raised its head, And with a look made of all sweet accord, Answered "The names of those who love the Lord." "And is mine one?" said Abou. "Nay, not so," Replied the angel. Abou spoke more low, But cheerly still, and said "I pray thee, then, Write me as one that loves his fellow men." The angel wrote, and vanished. The next night It came again with a great wakening light, And showed the names whom love of God had blessed, And lo! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest. Lake Poets is a term used to identify 19th century poets, William Wordsworth,Robert Southey andSamuel Taylor Coleridge who all lived in the Lake District and drew inspiration from the landscape. To A Goose by Robert Southey If thou didst feed on western plains of yore Or waddle wide with flat and flabby feet Over some Cambrian mountain's plashy moor. Or find in farmer's yard a safe retreat From gipsy thieves and foxes sly and fleet; If thy grey quills by lawyer guided, trace Deeds big with ruin to some wretched race, Or love-sick poet's sonnet, sad and sweet, Wailing the rigour of some lady fair; Or if, the drudge of housemaid's daily toil, Cobwebs and dust thy pinion white besoil, Departed goose! I neither know nor care. But this I know, that thou wert very fine, Seasoned with sage and onions and port wine. Peasant Poetry was work of 19th century poets from poor backgrounds often concerned with nature or rural setting. A couple of Peasant poets were John Clare andRobert Bloomfield. Braggart by John Clare With careful step to keep his balance up He reels on warily along the street. Slabbering at mouth and with a staggering stoop Mutters an angry look at all he meets. Bumptious and vain and proud he shoulders up And would be something if he knew but how; To any man on earth he will not stoop But cracks of work, of horses and of plough. Proud of the foolish talk, the ale he quaffs, He never heeds the insult loud that laughs: With rosy maid he tries to joke and play,-- Who shrugs and nettles deep his pomp and pride. And calls him 'drunken beast' and runs away-- King to himself and fool to all beside Victorian Poetry was written during the reign of Queen Victoria (1819-1901), the poets of this time created an escapist world inspired by Camelot and the Arthur legend Tennyson was a Victorian poet. Lady of Shallot by Alfred Lord Tennyson Part I On either side the river lie Long fields of barley and of rye, That clothe the wold and meet the sky; And through the field the road runs by ----------To many-towered Camelot; And up and down the people go, Gazing where the lilies blow Round an island there below, ----------The island of Shalott. Willows whiten, aspens quiver, Little breezes dusk and shiver Through the wave that runs for ever By the island in the river ----------Flowing down to Camelot. Four grey walls, and four grey towers, Overlook a space of flowers, And the silent isle imbowers ----------The Lady of Shalott. By the margin, willow-veiled Slide the heavy barges trailed By slow horses; and unhailed The shallop flitteth silken-sailed ----------Skimming down to Camelot: But who hath seen her wave her hand? Or at the casement seen her stand? Or is she known in all the land, ----------The Lady of Shalott? Only reapers, reaping early In among the bearded barley, Hear a song that echoes cheerly From the river winding clearly, ----------Down to towered Camelot: And by the moon the reaper weary, Piling sheaves in uplands airy, Listening, whispers "Tis the fairy ---------------Lady of Shalott."