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Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Awdl gywydd owdl gów-wid (rhymed cywcdd)the 9th codified Official Welsh Meter, a Cywydd, was rarely used by the chief poets or house bards who preferred Cywydd deuair hirion, but it continued to be employed by the lesser order of poets of the 14th century and has been revived by modern Welsh poets. As with all ancient Welsh forms, cynghanedd, (harmony of sound - attained through liberal use of alliteration, consonance, assonance, repetition and surprise internal rhyme) applies. The elements of the Awdl gywydd are: stanzaic, written in any number of couplets, it is often written in pairs as a quatrain. syllabic, 7 syllable lines. rhymed, the end syllable of L1 is repeated as rhyme at the pause in the early part (2nd, 3rd, or 4th syllable) of L2. The end syllable of L2 is a linking rhyme from couplet to couplet. x x x x x x A x x A x x x B (A could shift position slightly) x x x x x x C x x C x x x B (C could shift position slightly) Gorchest Beirdd or Poet's Bravado I'ch llys iach llawn, wiw Rys, yr awn a gwys a gawn, agos ged; a'th fudd, with fael, o gudd I'w gael, aur rhudd, wr hael, rhwydd y rhed. --- Madog Dwgraig 15th century This cywydd uses cynghanedd to the point of almost creating a nonsense poem. Ancient Welshman Magician or sorcerer, known conjurer, king's advocate. Poet priest, leader of men, Merlin's pen predicts one's fate. ~~Judi Van Gorder Feed the Hungry Tuesday morning in my town means brown paper bags with canned foods and local farmer's fare, caring turns a helping hand. They wait patiently in line to later dine, so they stand. ~~Judi Van Gorder The Río Grande by Stephen Arndt I saw from El Paso's bridge The high ridge of Cristo Rey, With its cross against the sky, And asked why things stood this way. On this side the rooted rich Hold their niche of luxury; On that side the migrant poor Find no cure for poverty. Below the bridge (as I live!) The Great River had run dry, Whose deep streams had once split us Apart, plus our common tie. Could the Río Grande's dirt Now alert both Brown and White That it need no more divide Our two sides but can unite?
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Cywydd deuair hirion ców-idd dyé-ire héer-yon (long-lined couplet), the 10th codified ancient Welsh Meter, a Cywydd, alternates rhyme between rising and falling end syllables. The elements of the Cywydd deuair hirion are: stanzaic, written in any number of couplets. made up of 7 syllable lines, rhymed, the rhyming syllables traditionally alternate between stressed and unstressed. ("flow" and "follow" might end two consecutive lines, the stressed syllable of flow rhymes with the unstressed syllable of follow). This is contrary to English wherein rhyme normally comes from the stressed syllable. x x x x x x A (the capital A represents a stressed rhyme.) x x x x x X a (the capital X represents the stressed syllable, the lower case a represents the unstressed rhyme.) Saith gywydd I Forfudd fain syth hoywgorff a saith ugain --- Dafydd Gwilym 14th century Storm The wild wind and rain suppress the dancing leaves in darkness. ---Judi Van Gorder Artist Eyes by Stephen Arndt Groups of stars, bare skeletons, We name as constellations And flesh them out to full shapes To fill our nightly skyscapes. Children watching clouds divine Animal shapes in outline; Hikers eye from heights they've won Forms in a rock formation; In leaf shadows we discern The makings of a pattern. he groups we perceive as things Depend upon the groupings. We try to connect each dot, Spot figures in an inkblot, And though we may not concur Or see things in like manner, Still, it seems that we are bent On finding form in content From children to scientists We all have eyes of artists.
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Cywydd deuair fyrion ców-idd dyé-ire féer-yon (short-lined couplet), the 11th codified ancient Welsh Meter, a Cywydd, is rarely seen outside of manuals. The elements of the Cywydd deuair fyrion are: written in any number of couplets made up of 4 syllable lines. rhyme is optional. x x x x or x x x A x x x x or x x x A Daylight Savings The day springs bright, holds night at bay. Judi Van Gorder Hardec riein Hydwf glwysgein Hoywliw gwenic huan debic Hawd dy garu Heul yn llethru. ---- Einion Offeiriad 15th century
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Cywydd llosgyrnog, ców-idd llos-gr-notheg, 12th codified ancient Welsh Meter, a Cywydd, is composed in sixains. It is speculated that the Welsh poets adopted this meter from a common medieval Latin hymn form. The elements of the Cywydd llosgyrnog are: stanzaic, written in any number of sixains. syllabic, the sixain is made up of 8-8-7-8-8-7 syllable lines. rhymed, L1 and L2 end-rhyme is echoed somewhere in the middle of L3 (3rd, 4th, or 5th syllables). L4 and L5 end-rhyme is echoed somewhere in the middle of L6. L3 and L6 end rhyme. as with all Welsh Meters, especially the Cywydds, a liberal dose of alliteration, assonance and/or consonance should be employed for harmony of sound, (cynghanedd) . x x x x x x x A x x x x x x x A x x A x x x B (A could shift position slightly) x x x x x x x C x x x x x x x C x x C x x x B (C could shift position slightly) Y mae goroff a garaf O gof aelaw aga a folaf O choeliaf gael i chalon' Am na welais i myn Elien O Lanurful ilyn Aerfen wawr mor wen o'r morynion -- Dafydd ap Demwnd Friend or Foe by Judi Van Gorder Knight of the Round Table, King' s friend, the fabled handsome one, men commend, lived to defend, valor seen, Sir Lancelot earned his reward. Though prowess unmatched with the sword, betrayed his Lord, loved his queen. Butterfly by Stephen Arndt Your change of form through chance or fate, That freeing step to final state, Which comes so late, came at last! From chrysalis (cocoon and lair) To butterfly with bright wing flare, Each one a pair, unsurpassed. Rice-paper thin, resplendent things, What artful wonders are your wings; With hues like spring's, how they spread! Let Chinese lanterns charm with light, You stud the noon as stars the night, Then take quick flight till you've fled. Mosaic tiles have mottled tints, And yet, compared with your close prints And dazzling glints, dull their glaze. The sun must rise to start its race Through skies it paints then sink apace (Unlike your grace), lost in grays. 'm not so youthful now as you, Nor am I fair as are you few, For once you flew, none dared fly. Such flight is why I feel this way I've been most sad: in but (they say) A year, or day, you will die.