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Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry English Verse English Ballet is a term that I wrote in the margin of one of my Norton Anthologies next to 2 poems by Sir Thomas Wyatt. I don't usually make up names of forms or try to create forms where they never existed before so I had to have read or heard this term somewhere. In the note I scribbled, "English Ballet or dance song, pronounced ball-ett." In a subsequent search, I can't find the source of my note nor can I find any further reference to the term. The two poems have a unique frame which doesn't fit any other form description, therefore I can only assume I found direction from somewhere to these poems which some source recognized as the English Ballet. I include the poems below. Some interesting facts I did find in my search however reveal that dance, particularly ballet was not prominent in England until the 19th century. Until then, the performing arts were usually plays, verse recitation and music with lyrics. Dance took a definitive back seat to the literary arts and was usually a supplement to verse, in mime or folk movement. Although, some courtiers enjoyed folk dance to entertain themselves. The 2 poems that I noted as English Ballets were written in the 16th century by Sir Thomas Wyatt who some call the father of English poetry. Wyatt didn't just write poetry, he studied it. His translations of Italian and French poetry gave him a wide knowledge of form and technique and he had to have been exposed to the French movement into the performing arts of the day which included rudimentary ballet. Wyatt's poems marked as English Ballets have a distinct French flavor and are similar to the French, Rondeau family of forms. In studying the two poems I see patterns that I include here. The elements of the English Ballet are: stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains. (The quatrains can be expanded to quintains by breaking L1 of each stanza into 2 lines at the end of the first phrase.) metered, L1-L3 tetrameter, L4 dimeter. When expanding to quintains, L1,L2,L5 are dimeter, L3 & L4 are tetrameter. rhymed aaaB cccB dddB etc. or AbbbA AcccA AdddA etc. written with a rentrement, (a word, phrase or line usually at the beginning of the poem that is repeated as a refrain within the poem.) repeated from stanza to stanza in a chain. Forget Not Yet FORGET not yet the tried intent Of such a truth as I have meant; My great travail so gladly spent, Forget not yet! Forget not yet when first began The weary life ye know, since when The suit, the service, none tell can; Forget not yet! Forget not yet the great assays, The cruel wrong, the scornful ways, The painful patience in delays, Forget not yet! Forget not! O, forget not this!— How long ago hath been, and is, The mind that never meant amiss— Forget not yet! Forget not then thine own approved, The which so long hath thee so loved, Whose steadfast faith yet never moved: Forget not this! --------- Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542) Is It Possible Is it possible That so high debate, So sharp, so sore, and of such rate, Should end so soon and was begun so late? Is it possible? Is it possible So cruel intent, So hasty heat and so soon spent, From love to hate, and thence for to relent? Is it possible? Is it possible That any may find Within one heart so diverse mind, To change or turn as weather and wind? Is it possible? Is it possible To spy it in an eye That turns as oft as chance on die, The truth whereof can any try? Is it possible? It is possible For to turn so oft, To bring that lowest which was most aloft, And to fall highest yet to light soft: It is possible. All is possible Who so list believe. Trust therefore first, and after preve, As men wed ladies by licence and leave. All is possible. ---Sir Thomas Wyatt
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry English Verse The Tudor Lyric like so many poetic terms can have two definitions. Tudor Lyric is a stanzaic form found in Shapes of Our Singing by Canadian poet, author and educator Robin Skelton. Skelton described the form as a popular choice of 16th century English poets. He believed it was influenced by the ancient Welsh meter, Rhupunt, possibly brought to the court under the reign of King Edward I when the Welsh were placed under English law. Skelton cited Sir Thomas Wyatt as one who often used this form although I was unable to find a single example of its use in the anthologies I have available. Obviously my medieval library needs expanding. The elements of the Tudor Lyric as described by Robin Skelton are: stanzaic, written in any number of octaves. accentual verse with 2 stresses and 4 syllables per line. rhymed, aaabcccb dddefffe etc. Silenced by Judi Van Gorder With scratchy throat I can't emote or even quote the note out loud. So soon to bed the tome unread I lay my head upon a cloud. The Tudor Lyric also refers to any English poetry of the 16th century which could be set to music. The period spanned the reign of the line of Tudors. Poetry during this time was often sung, usually accompanied by a lyre. Interestingly all Tudors, except Edward, were musical. Henry VIII and Elizabeth both wrote music, played instruments and sang their compositions for the royal court. Many lyrics of Henry VIII have been documented. The classic, Greensleeves has even been attributed to Henry although the true author remains unknown. Some believe he wrote it while he was moving on from Ann Boleyn. The English royal court of that time was where the arts flourished although early on in the competitive, romantic atmosphere, literature was often clichéd and patronizing of the royal family. It also was often a means to gain social or political favor. Much of Robert Sidney's work was written while in exile and his poetry was his way of trying to get back into the King's good graces. Some prominent poets of the era, were Sir Thomas Wyatt, Henry Howard Earl of Surrey, Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Edmund Spencer, Sir Walter Raleigh, Christopher Marlow, William Shakespeare and John Donne. The form of writing was varied, sonnets, cinquains, odes, blank verse and many of the French and Italian forms were experimented with in English. Sometime I fled the fire by Sir Thomas Wyatt Sometime I fled the fire, that me so burnt, By sea, by land, by water, and by wind: And now, the coals I follow, that be quaint, From Douer to Calais, with willing mind, Lo, how desire is both furth sprung, and spent: And he may see, that whilom was so blind: And all his labor, laughs he now to scorn, Meshed in the briers, that erst was only torn. In court to serve, The courtiers life. by Sir Thomas Wyatt IN court to serve decked with fresh array, Of sugared meats feeling the sweet repast: The life in bankets, and sundry kinds of play, Amid the press of lordly lokes to waste, Hath with it ioynde oft times such bitter taste. That who so ioys such kind of life to hold, In prison is fettered with chains of gold. Greensleeve Alas, my love, you do me wrong, To cast me off discourteously. For I have loved you well and long, Delighting in your company. Chorus: Greensleeves was all my joy Greensleeves was my delight, Greensleeves was my heart of gold, And who but my lady greensleeves. Your vows you've broken, like my heart, Oh, why did you so enrapture me? Now I remain in a world apart But my heart remains in captivity. chorus I have been ready at your hand, To grant whatever you would crave, I have both wagered life and land, Your love and good-will for to have. chorus If you intend thus to disdain, It does the more enrapture me, And even so, I still remain A lover in captivity. chorus My men were clothed all in green, And they did ever wait on thee; All this was gallant to be seen, And yet thou wouldst not love me. chorus Thou couldst desire no earthly thing, but still thou hadst it readily. Thy music still to play and sing; And yet thou wouldst not love me. chorus Well, I will pray to God on high, that thou my constancy mayst see, And that yet once before I die, Thou wilt vouchsafe to love me. chorus Ah, Greensleeves, now farewell, adieu, To God I pray to prosper thee, For I am still thy lover true, Come once again and love me. chorus Pastime with good company By King Henry VIII 1513 Pastime with good company I love and shall until I die. Grudge who likes, but none deny, So God be pleased, thus live will I. For my pastance: Hunt, sing, and dance. My heart is set! All goodly sport For my comfort. Who shall me let? Youth must have some dalliance, Of good or ill some pastance. Company I think then best -- All thoughts and fantasies to digest. For idleness Is chief mistress Of vices all. Then who can say But mirth and play Is best of all? Company with honesty Is virtue -- vices to flee. Company is good and ill, But every man has his free will. The best ensue. The worst eschew. My mind shall be. Virtue to use. Vice to refuse. Thus shall I use me! Pastime With Good Company from UTube
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Sonnet Sonnet Comparison Chart English Verse Although the sonnet began in Italy in the 13th century, Thomas Wyatt 1503-1542, was one of the first English poets to translate and utilize the form. He used the Petrarchan octave but introduced a rhyming couplet at the end of the sestet. His friend the Earl of Surrey also initiated more rhyme. The Italian form was restricted to 5 rhymes. After Wyatt and Surrey the sonnet could have 7 rhymes. They also shifted the sonnet away from the slightly more intellectual and argumentative Petrarchan form, and gave new importance to the ending, declamatory couplet. This Wyatt/Surrey adaptation of the sonnet has not been officially named, at least I haven't found an assigned designation yet. So for the sake of identification I call it the Wyatt/Surrey Sonnet. The elements of the Wyatt/Surrey sonnet are: a quatorzain, written with a Petrarchan octave followed by an envelope quatrain ending with a rhyming couplet. metric, primarily iambic pentameter. the rhyme scheme is abbaabba cddc ee. it is composed with the volta (non physical gap) or pivot (a shifting or tilting of the main line of thought) sometime after the 2nd quatrain. distinguished by the declamatory couplet. A Renouncing of Love by Sir Thomas Wyatt Farewell, Love and all thy laws for ever; --- Thy baited hooks shall tangle me no more. Senec, and Plato, call me from thy lore, To perfect wealth, my wit for to endeavour; In blind error when I did persever, Thy sharp repulse, that pricketh aye so sore, Taught me in trifles that I set no store ; But scaped forth thence, since, liberty is lever Therefore, farewell ! go trouble younger hearts, And in me claim no more authority : With idle youth go use thy property, And thereon spend thy many brittle darts : --- For, hitherto though I have lost my time, --- Me list no longer rotten boughs to clime. The fancy of a wearier lover by Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey The fancy, which that I have served long, That hath alway been enemy to mine ease, Semed of late to rue upon my wrong, And bade me fly the cause of my misease. And I forthwith did press out of the throng, That thought by flight my painfull heart to please Some other way: til I saw faith more strong: And to my self I said: alas, those days In vain were spent, to run the race so long. And with that thought, I met my guide, that plan Out of the way wherin I wandered wrong, Brought me amidst the hills, in base Bullayn: Where I am now, as restless to remain, Against my will, full pleased with my pain. Next Sir Edmund Spenser gets into the act 4. Spenserian Sonnet
Tinker posted a topic in English VerseExplore the Craft of Writing Poetry English Verse The Rhyme Royal Stanza or Rime Royal was originally written for ceremonies celebrating the entry of royals into the city and was also used in mock ceremonial festivals put on by guilds. The form has roots in 13th century France as a deviation of the Ottava Rima or the Chant Royal. It was later used in England by Chaucer in his Trolius and Criseyde and is sometimes called the Chaucerian Stanza or Trolius Stanza. But, because King James chose this form for some of his writings, royalty won out and the more popular name became Rhyme Royal. The elements of the Rhyme Royal are: lyrical verse that is flexible and can be written as a narrative. It can also be written as a commentary or literary burlesque. often written in iambic pentameter but was originally simply decasyllabic. stanzaic, written in any number of septets (7 line stanza) composed of a Sicilian tercet, followed by a quatrain of 2 heroic couplets, the first of which interlocks with the tercet. rhymed, ababbcc. They Flee From Me by -- Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542) One of Wyatt's most well known poems. Written in decasyllabic verse, much has been written about it because of the placement of the metaphor "that lies like a thin film merging the first 2 stanzas". The Lover Showeth How He Is Forsaken They flee from me that sometime did me seek, With naked foot stalking in my chamber. I have seen them gentle tame and meek That now are wild and do not remember That sometime they put themselves in danger To take bread at my hand; and now they range Busily seeking with a continual change. Thanked be fortune, it hath been otherwise Twenty times better; but once in special, In thin array after a pleasant guise, When her loose gown did from her shoulders did fall, And she me caught in her arms long and small; And Therewithall sweetly did me kiss, And softly said, "Dear heart, how like you this?" It was no dream, I lay broad waking. But all is turned thorough my gentleness Into a strange fashion of forsaking; And I have leave to go of her goodness And she also to use new fangleness. But since that I so kindly am served, I fain would know what she hath deserved. Bird's Eye View by Judi Van Gorder The queen upon her high Madrone-limb throne was taking count of those who serve her court when, through the glass she spied her kind. Alone, oh how she longed to join in their cavort. Although her royal duty can be sport when feline subject dares to lurk too near. Then beak and talon strike enforcing fear. The Rime Royal Sonnet is simply limiting the stanza count to two lyrical septets.