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Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Poetry of the 17th Century Baroque Poetry is known as an elaborate style embellished with complicated metaphors. The word baroque is Portuguese for imperfectly formed pearl. English poet Richard Crashaw, 17th century. Upon the Book and Picture of Sacrificial Saint Teresa by Richard Crashaw O THOU undaunted daughter of desires! By all thy dower of lights and fires; By all the eagle in thee, all the dove; By all thy lives and deaths of love; By thy large draughts of intellectual day, And by thy thirsts of love more large than they; By all thy brim-fill'd bowls of fierce desire, By thy last morning's draught of liquid fire; By the full kingdom of that final kiss That seized thy parting soul, and seal'd thee His; By all the Heav'n thou hast in Him (Fair sister of the seraphim!); By all of Him we have in thee; Leave nothing of myself in me. Let me so read thy life, that I Unto all life of mine may die! The Cavalier Poets were 17th century English poets associated with the royal court of the King Charles I. Some of the elements of their works are refined language, light hearted tones, direct language and clear images. The poems were royalist, secular and sometimes nostalgic. Some Cavalier poets were Ben Jonson, Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace and Sir John Suckling. To Lucasta on Going to Sea by Richard Lovelace IF to be absent were to be Away from thee; Or that when I am gone You or I were alone; Then, my Lucasta, might I crave Pity from blustering wind or swallowing wave. But I'll not sigh one blast or gale To swell my sail, Or pay a tear to 'suage The foaming blue god's rage; For whether he will let me pass Or no, I'm still as happy as I was. Though seas and land betwixt us both, Our faith and troth, Like separated souls, All time and space controls: Above the highest sphere we meet Unseen, unknown; and greet as Angels greet. So then we do anticipate Our after-fate, And are alive i' the skies, If thus our lips and eyes Can speak like spirits unconfined In Heaven, their earthy bodies left behind. Dadaism Jacobite Poets refers to poets during the reign of James I (1603-1625). John Donne, Michael Drayton, Ben Jonson and even Shakespeare although he is better known as an Elizabethan Poet. Sonnet III Taking My Pen by Michael Drayton Taking my pen, with words to cast my woe, Duly to count the sum of all my cares, I find my griefs innumerable grow, The reckonings rise to millions of despairs; And thus dividing of my fatal hours, The payments of my love I read and cross, Subtracting, set my sweets unto my sours, My joy's arrearage leads me to my loss; And thus mine eye's a debtor to thine eye, Which by extortion gaineth all their looks; My heart hath paid such grievous usury That all their wealth lies in thy beauty's books, And all is thine which hath been due to me, And I a bankrupt, quite undone by thee. Metaphysical Poetry is a movement from 17th century England, emotional poetry using simple or common language and unconventional, sometimes shocking imagery. Recognized as intellectual, psychological, often unconventional and bold. John Donn> and George Herbert are probably the best known of the Metaphysical poets. Sonnet, Death Be Not Proud by John Donne Death, be not proud, though some have called thee Mighty and dreadful, for thou are not so; For those whom thou think'st thou dost overthrow Die not, poor Death, nor yet canst thou kill me. From rest and sleep, which but thy pictures be, Much pleasure; then from thee much more must flow, And soonest our best men with thee do go, Rest of their bones, and soul's delivery. Thou'art slave to fate, chance, kings, and desperate men, And dost with poison, war, and sickness dwell, And poppy'or charms can make us sleep as well And better than thy stroke; why swell'st thou then? One short sleep past, we wake eternally, And death shall be no more; Death, thou shalt die. Neoclassic Poetry is from 17th-18th century England overlapping with Augustan poetry, that tended to be satirical and didactic. The movement originated by Ben Jonson and included Alexander Pope, John Dryden, Robert Herrick and Thomas Gray deliberately imitated the classic poetry of Greek and Roman poets and was crafted with a formal correctness with elegant restraint. It tended to view poetry as a honed craft rather than an expression of the soul. The world was described in terms of a strictly ordered heirarchy which neoclassics called The Great Chain of Being. Essay on Critisism by Alexander Pope But most by Numbers judge a Poet's song; And smooth or rough, with them, is right or wrong: In the bright Muse tho' thousand charms conspire, Her voice is all these tuneful fools admire; Who haunt Parnassus but to please their ear, Not mend their minds; as some to church repair, Not for the doctrine but the music there. These equal syllables alone require, Tho' oft the ear the open vowels tire; While expletives their feeble aid do join; And ten low words oft creep in one dull line: While they ring round the same unvaried chimes, With sure returns of still expected rhymes; Where'er you find "the cooling western breeze," In the next line it "whispers through the trees" If crystal streams "with pleasing murmurs creep" The reader's threaten'd (not in vain) with "sleep": Then, at the last and only couplet fraught With some unmeaning thing they call a thought, A needless Alexandrine ends the song That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along. Tribe of Ben were 17th century poets who admired and emulated Ben Jonson. Some of the poets were Robert Herrick, Carew, Lovelace and Suckling. The Hag by Robert Herrick The Hag is astride, This night for to ride; The Devill and shee together: Through thick, and through thin, Now out, and then in, Though ne'r so foul be the weather. A Thorn or a Burr She takes for a Spurre: With a lash of a Bramble she rides now, Through Brakes and through Bryars, O're Ditches, and Mires, She follows the Spirit that guides now. No Beast, for his food, Dares now range the wood; But husht in his laire he lies lurking: While mischiefs, by these, On Land and on Seas, At noone of Night are working, The storm will arise, And trouble the skies; This night, and more for the wonder, The ghost from the Tomb Affrighted shall come, Called out by the clap of the Thunder.
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Early 1800s Poetic Movements Classicism is a school of poetry known for its sense of formality and restrained emotion. Classical poets are noted to strive for perfection, their clarity of purpose, balance and use of elevated but not pompous language. The early 1800s saw a revival of Classicism although the term actually refers to poets of many eras who each built their work with respect and emulation of the first classical poets, the ancient Greeks and Romans, names such as Ovid, Homer, Horace, Catullus, Lucretius and Virgil. Classical poets are credited with the development of many thematic genres and forms. Great English poets who were considered among the best of Classical poets are Ben Jonson, Elegy; John Dryden Absalom and Architophel, Alexander Pope, Rape of the Lock; Samuel Johnson, The Vanity of Human Wishes and Matthew Arnold, The Scholar Gipsy. Elegy by Ben Jonson . Though beauty be the mark of praise, And yours of whom I sing be such As not the world can praise too much, Yet is 't your virtue now I raise. A virtue, like allay, so gone Throughout your form, as, though that move And draw and conquer all men's love, This sùbjects you to love of one. Wherein you triumph yet; because 'Tis of yourself, and that you use The noblest freedom, not to choose Against or faith or honor's laws. But who should less expect from you, In whom alone Love lives again? By whom he is restored to men, And kept, and bred, and brought up true. His falling temples you have reared, The withered garlands ta'en away; His altars kept from the decay That envy wished, and nature feared; And on them burn so chaste a flame, With so much loyalties' expense, As Love, t' acquit such excellence, Is gone himself into your name. And you are he; the deity To whom all lovers are designed That would their better objects find; Among which faithful troop am I. Who, as an offspring at your shrine, Have sung this hymn, and here entreat One spark of your diviner heat To light upon a love of mine. Which, if it kindle not, but scant Appear, and that to shortest view, Yet give me leave t' adore in you What I in her am grieved to want. Cockney Poetry was a term used by Blackwood Magazine 1817 England to describe poetry by poets from "humble" beginnings such as Leigh Hunt and John Keats. Abou Ben Adhem by James Leigh Hunt Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase!) Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace, And saw, within the moonlight in his room, Making it rich, and like a lily in bloom, An angel writing in a book of gold: Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold, And to the Presence in the room he said "What writest thou?" The vision raised its head, And with a look made of all sweet accord, Answered "The names of those who love the Lord." "And is mine one?" said Abou. "Nay, not so," Replied the angel. Abou spoke more low, But cheerly still, and said "I pray thee, then, Write me as one that loves his fellow men." The angel wrote, and vanished. The next night It came again with a great wakening light, And showed the names whom love of God had blessed, And lo! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest. Lake Poets is a term used to identify 19th century poets, William Wordsworth,Robert Southey andSamuel Taylor Coleridge who all lived in the Lake District and drew inspiration from the landscape. To A Goose by Robert Southey If thou didst feed on western plains of yore Or waddle wide with flat and flabby feet Over some Cambrian mountain's plashy moor. Or find in farmer's yard a safe retreat From gipsy thieves and foxes sly and fleet; If thy grey quills by lawyer guided, trace Deeds big with ruin to some wretched race, Or love-sick poet's sonnet, sad and sweet, Wailing the rigour of some lady fair; Or if, the drudge of housemaid's daily toil, Cobwebs and dust thy pinion white besoil, Departed goose! I neither know nor care. But this I know, that thou wert very fine, Seasoned with sage and onions and port wine. Peasant Poetry was work of 19th century poets from poor backgrounds often concerned with nature or rural setting. A couple of Peasant poets were John Clare andRobert Bloomfield. Braggart by John Clare With careful step to keep his balance up He reels on warily along the street. Slabbering at mouth and with a staggering stoop Mutters an angry look at all he meets. Bumptious and vain and proud he shoulders up And would be something if he knew but how; To any man on earth he will not stoop But cracks of work, of horses and of plough. Proud of the foolish talk, the ale he quaffs, He never heeds the insult loud that laughs: With rosy maid he tries to joke and play,-- Who shrugs and nettles deep his pomp and pride. And calls him 'drunken beast' and runs away-- King to himself and fool to all beside Victorian Poetry was written during the reign of Queen Victoria (1819-1901), the poets of this time created an escapist world inspired by Camelot and the Arthur legend Tennyson was a Victorian poet. Lady of Shallot by Alfred Lord Tennyson Part I On either side the river lie Long fields of barley and of rye, That clothe the wold and meet the sky; And through the field the road runs by ----------To many-towered Camelot; And up and down the people go, Gazing where the lilies blow Round an island there below, ----------The island of Shalott. Willows whiten, aspens quiver, Little breezes dusk and shiver Through the wave that runs for ever By the island in the river ----------Flowing down to Camelot. Four grey walls, and four grey towers, Overlook a space of flowers, And the silent isle imbowers ----------The Lady of Shalott. By the margin, willow-veiled Slide the heavy barges trailed By slow horses; and unhailed The shallop flitteth silken-sailed ----------Skimming down to Camelot: But who hath seen her wave her hand? Or at the casement seen her stand? Or is she known in all the land, ----------The Lady of Shalott? Only reapers, reaping early In among the bearded barley, Hear a song that echoes cheerly From the river winding clearly, ----------Down to towered Camelot: And by the moon the reaper weary, Piling sheaves in uplands airy, Listening, whispers "Tis the fairy ---------------Lady of Shalott."
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry| The Ode Greek Verse The Choral Ode, Pindaric Ode or Dorian Ode distinguishes itself from other odes because of its three-part order. It is also strophic, not stanzaic like the Horatian, Keatsian and Ronsardian Odes. The strophe may differ in structure within the poem, while the stanza is uniform in structure within the poem. This verse form introduced by Pindar 522-433 BC Greece was originally written to be performed by chorus and dance and was therefore "emotional, intense, brilliant and changeable to entertain an audience" (Quote found in my research notes without noting the author. I wish I said that.). Of course it. like all Odes, exalts or praises its subject. The names Choral and Pindaric Odes are obvious from the "choral" design of the frame and the name of the originator. The Dorians were one of the three tribes of ancient Greece who had their own dialect and culture. I couldn't find Pindaric named as a Dorian poet but he did live in the same era so I am making an assumption there must be some association between the Dorians and Pindaric. The verse is structured in a triad or three parts, which can be repeated within the poem. The parts are the strophe, the antistrophe, and the epode. The individual parts are also referred to as the Turne, Counterturn, and Stand. Originally created for a chorus from one side of the stage to sing or recite the strophe. The response or antistrophe is sung or chanted from the chorus on the other side of the stage. The triad is concluded by both choruses singing the epode. The strophe and antistrophe are written in exactly the same structure or frame, at the discretion of the poet. The epode must change in structure. This variation is meant to bring more drama to the ode. To the immortall memorie, and friendship of that noble paire, Sir Lucius Cary and Sir H. Morison The Turne BRAVE Infant of Saguntum, cleare Thy coming forth in that great yeare, When the Prodigious Hannibal did crowne His rage, with razing your immortall Towne. Thou, looking then about, Ere thou wert halfe got out, Wise child, did'st hastily returne, And mad'st thy Mothers wombe thine urne. How summ'd a circle didst thou leave man-kind Of deepest lore, could we the Centre find ! The Counter-turne Did wiser Nature draw thee back, From out the horrour of that sack, Where shame, faith, honour, and regard of right Lay trampled on ; the deeds of death, and night, Urg'd, hurried forth, and hurld Upon th' affrighted world : Sword, fire, and famine, with fell fury met ; And all on utmost ruine set ; As, could they but lifes miseries fore-see, No doubt all Infants would returne like thee. The Stand For, what is life, if measur'd by the space, Not by the act ? Or masked man, if valu'd by his face, Above his fact ? Here's one out-liv'd his Peeres, And told forth fourescore yeares ; He vexed time, and busied the whole State ; Troubled both foes, and friends ; But ever to no ends : What did this Stirrer, but die late ? How well at twentie had he falne, or stood ! For three of his four-score he did no good. ~~Ben Jonson (1572-1637) The Bard II.1 (Strophe) Weave the warp, and weave the woof, The winding-sheet of Edward’s race. Give ample room, and verge enough The characters of hell to trace. Mark the year, and mark the night, When Severn shall re-eccho with affright The shrieks of death, thro’ Berkley’s roofs that ring, Shrieks of an agonizing King! She-Wolf of France, with unrelenting fangs, That tear’st the bowels of thy mangled Mate, From thee be born, who o’er thy country hangs The scourge of Heav’n. What Terrors round him wait! Amazement in his van, with Flight combined, And Sorrow’s faded form, and Solitude behind. II.2 (Antistrophe) Mighty Victor, mighty Lord, Low on his funeral couch he lies! No pitying heart, no eye, afford A tear to grace his obsequies. Is the sable Warriour fled? Thy son is gone. He rests among the Dead. The Swarm, that in thy noon-tide beam were born? Gone to salute the rising Morn. Fair laughs the Morn, and soft the Zephyr blows, While proudly riding o’er the azure realm In gallant trim the gilded Vessel goes; Youth on the prow, and Pleasure at the helm; Regardless of the sweeping Whirlwind’s sway, That, hush’d in grim repose, expects his evening-prey. II.3 (Epode) Fill high the sparkling bowl, The rich repast prepare, Reft of a crown, he yet may share the feast: Close by the regal chair Fell Thirst and Famine scowl A baleful smile upon their baffled Guest. Heard ye the din of battle bray, Lance to lance, and horse to horse? Long Years of havock urge their destined course, And thro’ the kindred squadrons mow their way. Ye Towers of Julius, London’s lasting shame, With many a foul and midnight murther fed, Revere his Consort’s faith, his Father’s fame, And spare the meek Usurper’s holy head. Above, below, the rose of snow, Twined with her blushing foe, we spread: The bristled Boar in infant-gore Wallows beneath the thorny shade. Now, Brothers, bending o’er th’accursed loom Stamp we our vengeance deep, and ratify his doom. III.1 (Strophe) Edward, lo! to sudden fate (Weave we the woof. The thread is spun) Half of thy heart we consecrate. (The web is wove. The work is done.) ~~Thomas Gray (1716-1771) The Ode Odes named for poet or culture of their origin: The Aeolic Ode The Choral Ode or Pindaric Ode or Dorian Ode The Anacreontic Ode The Horatian Ode The Irregular or Cowleyan Ode The Keatsian or English Ode The Ronsardian Ode Thematic Odes: Elegy, Obsequy, Threnody Ode Elemental Ode Genethliacum Ode Encomium or Coronation Ode Epithalamion or Epithalamium and Protholathiumis Palinode Ode Panegyric or Paean Triumphal Ode Occasional Verse
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Greek Verse Acrostic, Greek for "at the tip of the verse". is a poetic technique or device that dates back to 1000 BC in ancient Babylonia. The first letter of each line or stanza spells out a name, a word, the title of the work or even a sentence or phrase. Ben Jonson created an acrostic as an intro to his classic play, The Alchemist, spelling out the title in his argument. The skill is in disguising the acrostic so that it is not obvious. In modern times, this form is most often used as light verse and occasional poetry. But how exciting to read a serious piece in stanzas, and upon explication discover an acrostic stanza within its midst, giving emphasis to a name, title, phrase etc. I wonder if our subconscious reads the acrostic, even when we are not aware. The elements of the Acrostic are: written without prescribed meter, rhyme, line #, or length, but all can be structured at the poet's discretion. written with the 1st letter of each line within the stanza spelling out an acronym, name, title, phrase, or sentence. Poets have even placed the acrostic within the poem such as the first letter of the first line, the first letter of the 2nd word in the 2nd line, the first letter of the 3rd word in the 3rd line and so on………… often used for light verse or occasional poetry, but can be very effectively inserted into a serious piece. The Argument (Intro to the classic play The Alchemist by Ben Jonson (1572-1637) THE SICKNESS hot, a master quit, for fear, His house in town, and left one servant there; Ease him corrupted, and gave means to know A Cheater and his punk; who now brought low, Leaving their narrow practice, were become Coz'ners at large; only wanting some House to set up, with him they here contract, Each for a share, and all begin to act. Much company they draw, and much abuse, In casting figures, telling fortunes, news, Selling of flies, flat bawdre, with the stone, Till it, and they, and all in fume are gone. --Ben Jonson writes this acrostic predominantly in iambic pentameter with rhyme. sublime by Judi Van Gorder a hidden message consciously placed, raising awareness by the tapping of the mind's subconscious resource to patiently influence thought, caress the imagination. secretly ranting slogans uttering personal praise leading gently by eloquent execution. August by Judi Van Gorder avacados ripen upon heaving limbs while a gecko skitters up a plaster wall under the palapa roof and chicadas sing their tenored song.... Nanook's Journey by Frank Gibbard Purple Pen by Judi Van Gorder Tepkunset by Judi Van Gorder Sub genres of the Acrostic are: Acrostic Sonnet is simply writing any sonnet form with the addition of adding an acrostic phrase or word from the initial letters of the lines. Abacedarius is an Acrostic with the letters of the alphabet appearing in the initial letter of each line rather than a word, name or phrase. This use of the acrostic was thought to connect the secular with the holy and can be found further described in Semitic Poetry. Adagem is a variation of the Acrostic in which the first word of each line conveys a message when read downwards. Compound Acrostic spells different words down the first letter of each line margin and last letter margin. Double Acrostic or Mirrored Acrostic was a popular verse in the 1800s apparently spurred by Queen Victoria's favoritism. She is said to have used this technique in her own writing. It was sometimes viewed more as a puzzle to be solved than a verse form. The verse can either spell the same word down the first letter of each line margin and the last letter of each line margin or spell a word or phrase down the first letter of the line and another word or phrase up the last letter of the line. This piece is said to have been written by Queen Victoria and was found at Poems of Today and Yesterday NapleS ElbE WashingtoN CincinnatI AmsterdaM StambouL TorneA LepantO EcliptiC Mesostich spells a word down the middle letter of each line of the poem. Pruntiform is a recent invented acrostic form created by Randy Prunty in which the words of the first line of the poem are sequentially the first word of each subsequent line. The structure of the poem is at the discretion of the poet. You can also use the title of a book, movie or poem (with 3 or more words in the title), begin each line of your poem with the sequential words from the title. The subject could describe the book etc named or it could be about anything. The frame of the verse is at the discretion of the poet. Unnoticed by Judi Van Gorder Water does not remove the stain For it is deep and indelible. Elephants dance in the attic. Spine Poem is a relatively new invented form of acrostic. It appears to be an exercise sometimes used in classrooms. You really don't write anything at all. It is a technique of stacking books so that their spines line up creating line of the poem with their titles. The trick is to line up titles which sequentially might actually make a little sense or tell a story. Children's book titles seem to work best. Where the wild things are 10 little monkeys jumping on the bed Goodnight moon. Telestich, sometimes referred to as a Citsorca ("acrostic" spelled backwards) is the exact opposite of an acrostic. A word or phrase is created from the last letter of each line. Indigo by Judi Van Gorder (a telestich) Need to cast off the ennui, the inertia of seven long days of the flu, a dead lump like too much chili in my stomach, roiling, urging me to go. Triple Acrostic was also found at Poems of Today and Yesterday and was understandably rare. As the name implies the letters of the right margin, the center of the line and the left margin each spell out a phrase. These were apparently found in Puzzle books of the early 20th century.