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  1. (Based on the vivid imagery in Alan Watts' book Myth and Ritual in Christianity. Another in the ancient Welsh form englyn penfyr, and a companion, of sorts, to First Light. The Tenebrae Candle is the VERY last candle to remain lit during the ancient Midnight Matins service.) Eve before an easter morn - on this night, Minds contrite; by sadness torn, We kneel and pray, hearts careworn. Eve before an easter morn - one last light, Candle bright, may seem to mourn Like an empty life outworn. Eve before an easter morn - but this light, Ever right and never lorn, Is a sign of God reborn.
  2. Night before a Christmas morn – stars tarry; Hymns carry a world so torn To be saved by God's Yet-born. Night before a Christmas morn – all is seen Red and green. Our hearts, forsworn, Still are gifts to God's Low-born. Night before a Christmas morn – in the dark, Holy spark. Candles have borne Ev'ry soul to God's High-born. (The memory of my first Christmas at Universalist National Memorial Church, at the impressive “Recessional of the Candles” during “Silent Night”. This is a version of the ancient Welsh form englyn penfyr. Please note that I am NOT a religious fundamentalist.)
  3. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Englyn penfyr, én-glin pén-fir or short ended englyn in the old style, is the 1st codified Official Welsh Meter, an Englyn. The oldest Welsh poetry in manuscript (early 9th century) was found written in the margin of the Juvencus Metrical Version of the Psalms, preserved in the Cambridge University Library. It is said to be stanzas written in praise of the Trinity in the englyn penfyr meter. Both the Englyn penfyr and the Englyn milwr are associated with "primitive Britain" and were out of vogue by the 12th century. The elements of the englyn penfyr are: stanzaic, written in any number of tercets. syllabic, a 10 syllable line followed by two 7 syllable lines. rhymed, mono rhymed, the main rhyme (the dominant rhyme of the stanza) of L1 found in the last half of the line followed by caesura end rhymes with L2 and L3. composed with an addendum, a "gair cyrch" in L1 (syllables in the last half of a line that follow the main rhyme marked by caesura. The gair cyrch end rhyme is to be echoed or consonated as secondary rhyme in the 1st half of L2. The caesura often appears as a dash.) Y wlad mewn gwisg o flodau -yn galw Dwy galon i lwybrau Yr ifanc drwy yr hafau x x x x x x x A x b x x b x x x A x x x x x x A The countryside, in its floral dress, calls two hearts to roam the paths of the young through summer days. by Dosbarth Tanyroes "Y Flwyddn" 20th century found in Singing in Chains by Mererid Hopwood Mud laps by Judi Van Gorder Ripples in the mud pool fanned ~ far and wide spreading inside-out to land in small laps upon the sand. Oprah by Judi Van Gorder She sings her own tune - in touch with her soul she shares her goal, grasps the moon with wisdom none can impugn. First Light(Golau Cychwynnol) by DC Martinson Night before a Christmas morn stars tarry; Hymns carry a world so torn To be saved by God's Yet-born. Night before a Christmas morn all is seen Red and green. Our hearts, forsworn, Still are gifts to God's Low-born. Night before a Christmas morn in the dark, Holy spark. Candles have borne Ev'ry soul to God's High-born. Dreams by Stephen Arndt Come, let the ember lights burn low; no more _____Let flames roar and flare, for so _____Drowsing dreams may freely flow; And let me dream what lies in store (I know _____Men can't show me that far shore _____Which my plodding might explore). Our dreamings mimic what might be, for they _____Mold the clay to cast a key _____Opening new worlds to see. I am not deaf to what dreams say. Watch me: _____I am free to stop and stay _____Or to wend my winding way. Are dreams like dice on which to bet? How few _____Pay what's due on piled-up debt! _____What they grudge is what you get I know my dreams may not come true, and yet _____Why forget that if they do, _____I shall fly to where they flew?
  4. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Englyn milwr, én-glin míl-wer (the soldier's englyn), the 2nd codified Official Welsh Meter, an Englyn, was often written in proverb, englynion y clyweit (the stanza of hearing). The verse is efficiently short, some might say terse. Originally a susinct poem in praise of a leaders valor and sometimes satire of a leader's failings, a Welsh epigram. It was actually thrown out of the "official meters" at one time, but its popularity and continued use earned its right to be included in the code. During World War I, English soldiers were sent embroidered love poems from home in this verse form. Verse in this meter was recorded in the Red Book of Talgarth and are thought to date as far back as 100 BC. Note: even with the Welsh reverence for the code, some verse breaks free and adds or subtracts a syllable or two. The elements of the englyn milwr are: a poem in 3 lines, a tristich, an epigram. syllabic, with 7 syllables per line. rhymed, mono-rhymed. thematic, praise of person or principal or satire of person or principal or soldier's message home. written with cynghanedd groes, repetition of the first consonant of each stressed word in the same sequence within each line ( take my letter / to my lady). The example appears simple but in reality cynghanedd groes is very difficult to incorporate into such a small poem and make any sense. (note: American Soldier includes no cynghabedd groes until the 2nd stanza. Rebirth hits the mark with the last 2 lines but falls short of the theme.) x x x x x x A x x x x x x A x x x x x x A American Soldier by Judi Van Gorder Our young soldiers pirouette, forced to play Bagdad roulette, duty is their epithet. Flag shrouds our fallen soldier In battle none is bolder, in a grave none is colder. Rebirth by Judi Van Gorder In the rain of early spring white daffodils wake dancing, descant sounds in delight sing.
  5. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Englyn unodl union, én-glin éen-oddle éen-yon (straight one rhyme englyn)the 3rd codified Official Welsh Meter, is the most popular of the Englyn meters and is often referred to as simply Englyn. It can range from lyrical to didactic and sometimes satirical. It is said to require "pithy expression and concise thinking." Singing in Chains by M. Hopwood. The uneven lines are referred to as the paladr or shaft and the even lines are the esgyll or wings of the stanza. Important features of the meter are the 2nd line must end on an unstressed syllable and the last line should be strong. The Englyn unodl crwc, is the structural reversal of the englyn unodl union and is rarely used. The elements of the englyn unodl union are: stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains. syllabic, made up of 10-6-7-7 syllable lines. rhymed, mono rhymed, the main rhyme (the dominant rhyme of the stanza) "A" is found somewhere in the last half of L1 (6th, 7th or 8th syllables) and is followed by caesura plus the rest of the 10 syllables and rhymes with the end words of L2 through L4. composed with an addendum, a "gair cyrch" in L1 (syllables in the last half of a line that follow the main rhyme marked by caesura. The gair cyrch end rhyme is to be echoed or consonated as secondary rhyme in the 1st half of L2. The caesura often appears as a dash.) written with L2 always ending in an unstressed syllable and either L3 or L4 should also end in an unstressed syllable. x x x x x x A x x b x b x x x A x x x x x x A x x x x x x A Kentucky Derby We cheer the run for the roses - the quest the best of three discloses, the finest, a shouted Oh!, says . . . Churchill Downs' proposes. ~~Judi Van Gorder Two Dollar Bet Under wide brimmed hat prinked with birds - so hip, a hot tip is overheard, favored until afterward, my pick, far back in the herd. ~~Judi Van Gorder Pob dyn oer dyddyn neut eiddaw agheu aghyueillwr iddaw y veddu daear arnaw y ved or diwed y daw --- Prydydd Y Moch To everyman belongs death, cold tenement, death the unfriendly; to own earth above him, to the grave at last he comes. -- translated by Gwyn Miller Cei fynwes gynes geni---cu fwynwalch cei f'einioes os mynni; cei fy llaw yn dy law di, cei fy nerth cyfan wrthi ---anonymous Welsh poets often repeat the first letter, syllable or word in each line of the stanza. This is called cymeriad (memory).
  6. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Englyn unodl crwca, én-glin éen-oddle crewc (crooked short one rhyme englyn) the 4th codified Official Welsh Meter, an Englyn,, is the structural reverse of Englyn unodl union which is far more popular. The englyn unodl crwca is rarely used. The elements of the Englyn unodl crwc are: stanzaic, written as any number of quatrains, syllabic, 7-7-10-6 syllable per line. rhymed, mono rhymed. In L3 the main rhyme is found in the last half of the line followed by caesura and gair cyrch. composed with "gair cyrch" in L3 (syllables in the last half of a line that follow the main rhyme marked by caesura. The gair cyrch end rhyme is to be echoed or consonated as secondary rhyme in the 1st half of L4. The caesura often appears as a dash.) x x x x x x A x x x x x x A x x x x x x A - x x b x b x x x A Kyt ymwnel kywyt, bryt brys, yn llawen llewych yslys, lletryt dallon donn ef ai dengys---gud lliw blaen gruc Generys. ---- Einion Offeiriad 15th century Upon this Rock by Judi Van Gorder He chose a simple fisherman, rock foundation holds God's plan, His anointed Sacristan - head of church, Peter's perch . . . Vatican.
  7. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Englyn cyrch, én-glin circh (two rhyme englyn), the 5th codified Official Welsh Meter, an Englyn is verse that employs cyrch which means internal rhyme. The elements of the Englyn cyrch are: stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains made up of 2 Cywydd couplets, the Cywydd deuair hirion and Awdl gywydd. syllablic, 7 syllable lines. rhymed, AaBA with the end syllable of L3 rhymed somewhere in the first half of L4. x x x x x x A (stressed last syllable) x x x x x X a (unstressed last syllable) x x x x x x B x x B x x x A ( B ) can be in the 2nd 3rd or 4th syllables Fel y cuddia'r llwyni gleision ddolennog grwydriad Cynon dymunwn innau lechu'r ferch enynnodd serch fy nghalon Fall by Judi Van Gorder The wild wind and rain suppress the dancing leaves in darkness, telling time to disappear while they clear away excess. The Saguaro Cactus by Stephen Arndt Curses on the god of sun, His burn a crime like arson! Yet you battle him till night And fight until you have won. Curses on the gods of wind, Whose force is unimagined! When they bluster through your place, You face the attack, thick-skinned. Curse the gods of sand and dust, Who storm when winds wail loudest! Let them cloud the air and vaunt, Undaunted, you stand robust. Ball your fists to curse and cuss, Strong-armed Saguaro Cactus! Rail against the desert sky, Defy it for all of us!
  8. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Englyn proest dalgron, én-glin proyst dál-gron ( half rhymed englyn), sometimes referred to as Englyn Proest Cyfnewidlog is verse that utilizes proest or half rhyme but no full rhyme. It is the 6th codified Official Welsh Meter, an Englyn, The elements of the englyn proest dalgron are: stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains. syllabic, made up of 7 syllable lines. rhymed, all of the lines half rhyme. In this stanza form, the rhymes are formed by vowels of the same length or by vowels of the same length followed by a consonant or the vowel w (long oo in English). The key is the rhymed syllables must be the same length. Long sounds match with long sounds and short sounds match with short sounds. (vote and boot are the same length but, bale and bill are not) x x x x x x a x x x x x x a x x x x x x a x x x x x x a Agharat hoen leuat liw yghiyeth lewychweith law wyf oth garat, glwyfgat glew, ynvyt drew benyt y'mbyw ---- Einion Offeiriad 15th century Limey's Adventure by Judi Van Gorder The shiny lime green frog can jump over the fox's den without waking fox within, then croaks and soaks in the sun. Peck's Pond by Judi Van Gorder Murky surface of Peck's Pond, the stocked rainbow trout swim stunned. The camp sick children attend and fish sitting on the sand. Sabino Canyon by Stephen Arndt Stopping by a spring-fed lake On our carefree canyon hike, Giving feet a grateful soak, I inspect a spiring peak. Former aeons formed these rocks With their crevices and cracks; Here are boulders stacked like bricks, There are carved-out caves and nooks. See the massive mountain ridge, Cacti clutching to a ledge, Wearing blossoms like a badge, You may gaze - they will not grudge. When I hear the canyon rills With the gurgling sound that lulls, Seeing slopes arise from dells, I wish my house had such walls.
  9. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Englyn lleddfbroest, én-glin lléd-uhv-broyst (diphthong half rhymed englyn), the 7th codified Official Welsh Meter, an Englyn, is close to impossible to emulate in English. Therefore, if you want to give this one a try, consider yourself successful if you get sort of close to these sounds. As the on-line site Kalliope says "in English, cheat". The elements of the englyn lleddfbroest are: stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains. syllabic, 7 syllable lines. rhymed, all of the lines half rhymes but the four half-rhymes must be the diphthongs ae, oe, wy, and ei in whatever order. x x x x x x ae x x x x x x oe x x x x x x wy x x x x x x ei or ai Llawen dan glaerwen len laes, lleddfolwg gloyn amlwg glwys, llathrlun manol a foleis, llarieidd foneddigeidd foes. ---- Einion Offeiriad 15th century Absolute Nonsense by Judi Van Gorder Sorry, even cheating fails, to try writing Welsh forms foils artistry and yet appeals to poets creating howls. The Agave Cactus by Stephen Arndt Rings of fleshy leaves are joined About the stalk they surround; Its five-meter height attained, Not a bud is there to find. Half a century devoid Of blooms that would make you proud, When they flower, long delayed, Yellow suns rise, open-eyed. These gold flowers you enjoy Took you fifty years, and now You at last have had your day It is time for you to die. I have fifty years of toil, And though they've not yet grown foul, I have hopes they will not fail Before they have bloomed a while.
  10. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Welsh Verse Features of the Welsh Meters Welsh Codified Divisions Englyn proest gadwynog én-glin proyst ga-doy-nóg cadwyn or (chain of half-rhyme), the 8th codified Official Welsh Meter, an Englyn, is verse that employs both alternating full rhyme which half rhymes with the alternating full rhymes. To complicate things further no half rhyme may occur within the lines. The elements of the englyn proest gadwynog are: stanzaic, written in a chain of quatrains. syllabic, 7 syllable lines. rhymed, each line half rhymes with the next line and fully rhymes with the next. L1 and L3 fully rhyme with each other, L2 and L4 half rhyme with the rhyme of L1 and L3 and should fully rhyme with each other. The full rhymes of L1 and L3 half rhyme with the full rhyme of L1 and L3. chained, the last word of the stanza begins the next stanza. x x x x x x A x x x x x x a x x x x x x A x x x x x x a a x x x x x B x x x x x x b x x x x x x B x x x x x x b Kael or war koler euraid Karw Edwart mewn kaer ydwyd Kael o ebolion lonaid Kann ystabl yt, kwnstabl wyd. --- Dafydd Nanmor Warrior Woman by Judi Van Gorder Desired by all who've seen the royal fighting woman, Gweneviere the Warrior Queen, behold, King Arthur's chosen. Chosen from the very best appearing out from the mist stand beside him in his quest join Camelot's wedding feast. Feast of victory and peace lady takes her rightful place in time see injustice cease royals joined in married bliss. The Desert Palm by Stephen Arndt Like an upright spine, your trunk Grows as straight as any plank And, with roots so deeply sunk, Towers upwards, lean and lank. Lank as well, your long, green leaves, Ranged in spirals, spend their lives Capping a crown that receives But rare drops of rain, yet thrives. Thrive serene in heartless heat, Poised upon your peaceful height; See us speed our hurried feet, Watch us flee in hasty flight. Flight or fight of little ants Scrapping over scant amounts Thus must seem our frantic dance When you total our accounts.
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