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  1. tonyv

    Iambic Pentameter

    The most common metric line in English poetry is iambic pentameter. A poem written in pure iambic pentameter (da Dum da Dum da Dum da Dum da Dum) can create a sing songy effect yet a skilled writer can deliver the metric pattern without the poem sounding like a nursery rhyme. Here are some guidelines for composing iambic pentameters. The guidelines are generally accepted standards that I try to follow. Many people have the misconception that a line of iambic pentameter must contain exactly five iambs. While five iambs in a row certainly does make an iambic pentameter, iambic pentameters are not limited to this configuration. Various substitutions (of other metrical feet) may be used within lines of iambic pentameter, and the lines will still be considered iambic pentameters. The most basic iambic pentameter consists of five iambs in a row: I want to write some lines of formal verse / i WANT / to WRITE / some LINES / of FOR / mal VERSE / / iamb / iamb / iamb / iamb / iamb / Now, let's introduce some variation into this line. An unstressed syllable at the end of a line of iambic pentameter is known as a "feminine ending," or "hypermetrical": I want to write some lines in proper meter / i WANT / to WRITE / some LINES / in PRO / per ME / ter / iamb / iamb / iamb / iamb / iamb / ^ (The carat ^ designates the last syllable, or feminine ending.)The important thing to remember is that when writing a line with a feminine ending in rhymed poetry, the line that rhymes with it should also have a feminine ending: I want to write some lines in proper meter the way I once saw done by poet Peter / the WAY / i ONCE / saw DONE / by PO /et PET / er / iamb / iamb / iamb / iamb / iamb / ^ Now that we've looked at some basic iambic pentameters, let's consider some metrical feet that can be substituted for iambs within an iambic pentameter. I'll introduce some trochees into the iambic pentameters we looked at above. Trochees may be used anywhere within an iambic pentameter except in the last foot, which should be an iamb. Also, trochees (and other substitutions) must not outnumber the iambs within a line. This means that at least three of the feet in an iambic pentameter should be iambs: Wanting to write some lines of formal verse / WANting / to WRITE / some LINES / of FOR / mal VERSE / / trochee /iamb / iamb / iamb / iamb / There's only one trochee in this line. I could have used two, and the line would still be an iambic pentameter. The next substitution is a pyrrhic, followed by a spondee. It counts as two iambs in the line, and it's called a "double iamb": It's all easy to do when you know how / it's ALL / EASy / to DO / when you / KNOW HOW / / iamb / trochee / iamb / {pyrrhic / Spondee} / As you can see, in the above line, I used the pyrrhic spondee combination which counts as two iambs. You can also see I threw a trochee into the mix, in foot two of the line. Yes, this combination of iamb-trochee-iamb-pyrrhic-spondee amounts to a strict iambic pentameter. Double iambs are okay anywhere in an iambic pentameter. Spondees are also okay anywhere in an iambic pentameter. The next often used metrical convention is known as a "headless iamb." When the first iamb of an iambic pentameter is missing its unstressed syllable, the line is said to contain a headless iamb. A headless iamb is okay in iambic pentameter, so long as the line contains no other substitutions. This means that the line must contain, in addition to the headless iamb, exactly four iambs -- Soon you'll write in meter like a pro / ^ SOON / you'll WRITE / in ME / ter LIKE / a PRO / / headless iamb / iamb / iamb / iamb / iamb / (Again, the carat ^ designates a missing syllable, in this case, that of the headless iamb.) -- but the line could have been easily modified to omit the headless iamb by omitting the contraction: Soon you will write in meter like a pro / SOON you / will WRITE / in ME / ter LIKE / a PRO / / trochee / iamb / iamb / iamb / iamb / Either way is okay, with or without the headless iamb; both are considered iambic pentameters. I'll add that some people think a poem written in iambic pentameter should not start out with a line that contains a headless iamb. I myself don't think a headless iamb in the first line is a bad thing. The last thing I'll mention in this topic is the matter of anapests. Anapests, used sparingly, are acceptable in iambic pentameter. A poem that contains no anapests is considered "strict," whereas a poem containing some anapests is referred to as "loose." Here's one of the lines used above, modified slightly, to contain an anapest: Writing in meter's a cinch when you know how / WRIting / in ME / ter's a CINCH / {when you / KNOW HOW} / / trochee / iamb / anapest / {pyrrhic / spondee} / Notice, even with the trochee and the anapest, the line still conforms. The iambs (when the double iamb is taken into consideration) still outnumber the substitutions. Well, there you have it. Some basic guidelines for iambic pentameter. Poem with scansion explaining iambic pentameter AN ADDITIONAL NOTE: At no point in any iambic pentameter should there be three unstressed syllables in a row. Therefore, a combination like a trochee followed by an anapest is not possible.
  2. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Explication and critique go hand in hand. Explication is the close reading and breakdown of the components of a particular poem. A critique hopefully is given after an explication is made and often takes the explication to the next level to express an opinion and/or give advice. We can learn a great deal about writing through explication. Critique helps another see the poem through a readers eyes. I include here some notes I think important to consider before giving a critique and an explication template that I originally got from another who I only know as "Linda", while we were both taking an online class on Reading Poetry. I have modified it as I grew in understanding and it has evolved over the years.I have used the explication template to review my own work, if only to remind myself of elements I feel important in any good writing. Critique Notes: Read the poem several times before expressing an opinion or offering advise. (preferably do a complete explication) Critique the writing only, never the content. If at all possible, begin and end every critique with a positive comment about the poem, be specific. Simply being brave enough to write a poem and show it to someone else merits some reward. Be honest. When suggesting change, you might want to use phrases such as "I wonder if" , "Can I suggest" "In my opinion you might . ." Remember you are only voicing your opinon, others including the poet may disagree. The bottom line is, it is the poet's creation, not yours. You are only offering a different perspective to help the poet see the poem through a reader's eye. Explication Template Meaning and Themes: The poem is about …….. it is a . . . Structure:: what is the frame or structure of the poem? Is it a recognized stanzaic or verse form such as a sonnet, limerick, Villanelle or free verse etc.? Describe the elements of the frame such as strophic or stanzaic, # of lines, rhyme scheme, meter - appropriate use of form, does it fit the content, enhance or detract Title: what is its relationship to poem, will it draw a reader to the poem? Opening: Are the opening lines strong enough to grab the reader? Could a later line serve better as an opener? Tone: what is the tone is it somber, gay, reflective etc. Do the opening lines set the tone? Emotional Impact: At first read, what, if any, was the emotional impact the poem had on you? Words: Choice and placement:importance to the poem through selection, placement and use. Texture: is more about the topography of words and phrases. "the hot rock" vs "the solar glazed granite" both say the same thing, each with a different texture which involves rhythm and pitch that enhance the tone of the poem. Muscle: has to do with the type of words used, action verbs, passive verbs, multiple adjectives and/or adverbs vs no adj and or adv. High density of same syllable words, or repetition of any one effect. I see this as: the Camero screeching, skidded into the hair pin turn vs the car slid when it reached the corner. Sound Patterns: this is the good old standbys alliteration, assonance, consonance, sibilance, etc. Surprise: is exactly what the word means. A word or phrase the reader wasn't expecting. Imagery: described either as concrete ( to grow together - specific, grounded) or abstract (to pull away - floating around, difficult to grasp) literal image, describing the image in detail as it appears. figurative image, metaphor (transfer of qualities), simile (comparison of qualities), personification (human qualities to non human objects or thoughts), metonymy (identifying emblem substituted for whole), synesthesia (sensory object described by another sense), oxymoron (conflicting terms), synecdoche (a piece ) symbol, an image or action that stands for more than itself. Epiphany: Pivot, shift, tilting, manifestaion or realization of the main line of the poem. The Ah Ha! moment. Closure: Do the closing lines seem contrived or telly? Does the last line think for the reader or does it hand over the poem to the reader's own thoughts? Poet: When explicating, who is the poet, during what time and from where was the poem written … other factors which may have influenced the content Poem, line by line with comment:
  3. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Measuring the line Meter is the rhythmic measure of a line of verse. The emphasis being on the word measure. "Meter is so not rhythm, because rhythm is way beyond and above meter. (Metric) scansion is merely a way to begin to reveal just how the pleasing effect of sounds in speech is augmented by stress patterns.” Ikars Sarma “Think of meter as an underlying beat, a poem's regular beat, like the beat in a piece of music. Think of the variations (the substituted feet, choice of syntax, rhyme, etc.) as the music superimposed over that beat. The meter, the beat, is there; even with substituted feet, the underlying beat is there in the backdrop. The beat -- the regular rhythm -- must be there in metrical poems. While all poems have musicality (or should) metrical poems, unlike free verse, have regular rhythm. Free verse has rhythm, but not regular rhythm. The lines may be different lengths and line breaks, stanza breaks, natural cadences of the English language (which is primarily iambic, even if one reads prose), and other poetic devices make up the poem's musicality. Free verse does not have meter, a regular rhythm from line to line, and we don't scan it to analyze it's rhythm." Tõnis Veenpere It was the Greeks who were the first to measure and name poetic meters and in English we still refer to the various units of measure by their Greek names. There are different measures used in poetics. The four major measures in English are Accentual Verse, Syllabic Verse, Accentual Syllabic Verse and Quantitative Verse. Here is my simple understanding of the basics of meter. I also include an index for the various meters found in poetic cultures around the world. There are many more metric terms (rarely used and rarely understood) that I do not include here. The most popular metric line in the English language is the "iambic pentameter" line. One of the best explainations of the iambic pentameter line that I have ever read is right here at this site written by our own Tony Veenpere Iambic Pentameter. "I would sooner write free verse as play tennis with the net down." "There are only two meters "strict and loose iambic." Robert Frost METERS and PATTERNS accentual accentual syllabic anapest amphibrach amphimacer basit beit choriamb choree dactyl decameter dimeter dodecameter hazaj hexameter hendecameter heptameter iamb monometer mutagarib nonometer octameter pentameter pyrrhic or phirach quantitative rajaz Ramal spondee syllabic tawil tetrameter tribach trimeter trochee wafir Accentual Verse measures heavy stresses without any specific pattern and sometimes measures unstressed syllables, but not always. This is folk verse, it carries the rhythm of normal speech. It might be described as written with 4 stresses or 3 stresses and 4 unstressed syllables. Podic Verse is rhymed Accentual Verse. Syllabic Verse simply measures the line by number of syllables. A syllable is a unit of pronunciation uttered without interruption, It forms the whole or part of a word. Japanese poetry measures the line by onji which means "sound syllable" for which there is no true translation in English, therefore we are reduced to simply counting syllables as we understand them. The Chinese and some other Asian poetics include the measure of pitch or tone in their count. This is language specific and impossible to duplicate in English and again we are left with the syllable. Probably the accurate term for measurement, especially when emulating the Chinese forms, would be to count characters. Since most Chinese words written in characters are a single syllable. one way to equate the transition to English is to simply count syllables. Another way would be to recognize that a single syllable word in Chinese could translate into multi syllables in English and therefore converting character count to word count. I've seen it done both ways. Word count makes more sense to me. Accentual Syllabic Verse measures the line by dividing it into metric feet as well as counting syllables. Accentual Syllabic measures are made up of a combination of stressed and unstressed syllables. A book I have found very helpful in the understanding of meter, specifically Accentual Syllabic meter, is Rules for the Dance by Mary Oliver, 1998, ISBN 0-395-85086-x. Tony provides a wonderful explaination of how the patterns and metric measures fit together in this forum thread. Quantitative Verse also measures the line by dividing it into metric feet as well as counting syllables. However, Quantitative measures are made up of a combination of long and short vowel sounds. There was a failed attempt in 16th century England to emulate Greek meters using long and short vowel sounds by the Classists. But the English ear doesn't readily recognize the long and short sounds as easily as stressed and unstressed sounds. In English, quantitative verse is sometimes difficult to discern and we transition to Accentual Syllabic by default which warps the intent a bit. Or we will often attempt to reduce to the lowest common denominator and simply count syllables, still a little warped. Middle Eastern poetry often uses quantitative verse as a measure but then again, it is sometimes described in syllabic terms. Like the Asian languages, Middle Eastern prosody sometimes requires measure of other factors. Heavy or light sounds can become part of the equation. Of course in English it cannot be duplicated. It is all language specific but interesting to me how words are delivered in so many different ways. Both accentual syllabic and quantitative verse use the same metric terms to indicate number of feet and syllabic combinations. 1 metric foot = monometer 2 metric feet = dimeter 3 metric feet = trimeter 4 metric feet = tetrameter 5 metric feet = pentameter 6 metric feet = hexameter 7 metric feet = heptameter 8 metric feet = octameter 9 metric feet = nonometer 10 metric feet = decameter 11 metric feet = hendecameter 12 metric feet = dodecameter Accentual Syllabic Patterns u = unstressed syllable ---S = stressed syllable uSu = amphibrach = for-ev-er SuS= amphimacer = look and see uuS = anapest = through the night Suu = dactyl = hol-i-day SuuS = choriamb = light in the east uS = iamb = to-day SS = spondee = 2 heavy stresses night-mare Su = trochee or choree = Moth-er uu = pyrrhic or phirach = 2 unstressed syllables = of the uuu = tribrach = 3 unstressed syllables Try an excercise verse form to flex your metric muscles. Quantitative Verse Patterns To show an example of long and short sounds, would be like the long sound in book vs the short sound of buck. I know it is suptle but if you listen very carefully you can hear the longer and shorter vowel sounds. s = short syllable L = long syllable sLs = amphibrach = short syllable followed by a long syllable followed by a short syllable ssL = anapest = 2 short syllables followed by a long syllable Lss = dactyl =long syllable followed by 2 short syllables sL = iamb = short syllable followed by a long syllable LL = spondee = 2 long tresses Ls = trochee or choree = long syllable followed by short syllable ss = phirach = 2 short syllables sss = tribrach = 3 short syllables Now that I have thoroughly confused you, here are a couple of Links with more detailed examples on meter found at Poetry Free For All? Handy Dandy Vestpocket Guide to Iambic Pentameter by HowardW at PFFA Normative Meter, Two-Syllable Feet and Three-Syllable Feetby Howard Miller at PFFA
  4. Tinker

    Glossary of Poetic Terms A - D

    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Glossary Definitions are simplified and limited to their use within the scope of poetic study. I recommend the use of a good dictionary for more complete explanation. Poetic terms defined A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z Genre, Devices,Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z A Poetic Genres and Verse Forms A abstract Intangible, not concrete, separate from the physical. Abstract Poetry A poetic movement and genre which attempts to communicate emotion through word sounds. academic verse Poetry that follows the conventions of a particular school of poetry or movement. See Trail Blazers to Modern Poetry acatalectic Line measure. A complete metric line. accent Metric pattern. Latin - accentus = "song added to speech". The recurring beat of a metric line. Emphasis or stress on a syllable via pitch, stress or length, in comparison to the other syllable or syllables within the metric foot. It is the basis for most poetic meters in English. accentual verse Line measure. The measure of stressed syllables within the line without attention to any specific pattern. Sometimes, the measure also includes unstressed syllables, but not always. This is also known as folk verse; it carries the rhythm of normal speech. accentual syllabic verse Line measure. The measuring of the line by metric feet determined by counting both stressed and unstressed syllables and dividing them into patterns. eg iambic tri meter is 6 syllables, 3 unstressed, 3 stressed da DUM/ da DUM/ da DUM/. The metric feet are made up of a combination of stressed and unstressed syllables. acephalous Line measure. "headless" the initial syllable of a metric line of verse is missing. Acritic Verse Greek-"song of the frontiersmen". A poetic genre, the heroic or epic poetry of 10th century Byzantium. The poetry emerged from an almost continuous state of warfare. It was composed as first hand experiences in narratives of recitation, or in a simple, recurring, cadence that was easy to remember and pass on. It set up the beginnings of modern Greek verse. Acrostic Greek for "at the tip of the verse". This poetic genre dates back to 1000 BC in ancient Babylonia. The first letter of each line or stanza spells out a name, a word, the title of the work or even a sentence or phrase. There are several Acrostic variations. Action Poetry Verse meant to be performed by several voices. Adonics Line measure with metric pattern. A 2 foot line composed in 5 syllables, a dactyl followed by a trochee. adynaton Poetic device, the magnification to impossibility. E.g. "I'd walk a million miles for one of your smiles." The opposite of aporia. Aesthetic Movement School of thought that art is its own justification and purpose. Afflatus "act of blowing or breathing on", verse inspired by the study of another's poem. aicill rhyme A sound element. (Commonly used in Celtic verse forms.) According to the NPEOPP aicill rhyme is simply rhyming an end word of one line with a word somewhere early in the next line. Robin Skelton's Shapes of our Singing takes it a step further and states aicill rhyme occurs when the end word of the first line is disyllabic. An on-line source describing Gaelic pronunciation takes it even a step further describing aicill rhyme as occuring when the last stressed syllable of an end word rhymes with the next to last unstressed word in the next line with no mention that the end word need by disyllabic. (Gaelic examples I've been able to find seem to support all 3 definitions, of course I can't really hear the stressed/unstressed definition but one example appeared as if the internal rhyme could be unstressed by the position in the line and the words around it.) Aide-Memoire Usually a short poem that acts as an aid to memory, like "Thirty days hath September/April, June and Novemeber./ Alexandrine Line measure. French - An iambic hexameter (6 metric feet) line made up of 2 hemistiches (half lines) separated by caesura. One source says to be a true Alexandrine line has two equal and complete hemistiches separated by an absolute caesura (period, question mark, colon). The caesura gives a dramatic, sometimes formal effect to the line. The pattern slows speech and gives the line a sense of importance. Pausing with a comma and with hemistiches not quite complete or equal have been referred to as a "loose" Alexandrine or a Fourteener. The rhythm is less abrupt and more pleasant to the ear. allegory Figurative Language (Greek-altos agoreuein -others speak) A symbolic representation, a subject described under the guise of something else with similar points. The characters or symbols usually become what they represent and are often named accordingly. e.g. Dr. Love, Valley of Humiliation, Mr. Worldy Wiseman etc. An extended metaphor that explains good and evil, or moral or religious principals that are often written as dreams. Allegory uses the entire poem for the comparison and the pattern holds throughout the piece, point by point. alliteration A sound element. (from Latin al litera- to letter) Repetition of 2 or more beginning sounds of the stressed syllable of successive words in a line, most commonly repeated consonants that phonetically match e.g. Little ladies like lovely Lillys or Center for Secret Sisters. However beginning vowel sounds will always alliterate e.g The ant eater entered the exit. allusion Figurative language using a recognizeable reference such as myth, historical event, line from another's poem or a cultural artifact to compress and enrich the poem. Metaphor and allegory are forms of allusion. alternate rhyme A sound element. abab cdcd Rhyme change every other line. ambiguity Although not always desirable in prose, ambiguity in poetry can add texture to the piece. Ambiguity is the ability to be understood in more than one way, an uncertainty, an instance of double meaning. American Verse Forms Verse Forms originating in America. amphibrach Metric Pattern A metric foot of short-long-short or unstressed-stressed-unstressed (uSu e.g. forever) Amphigory Parody or nonsense verse. In this poetic genre silliness and wit are the main goals , amusing while containing little inside knowledge. amphimacer Metric Pattern. A metric foot of long-short-long or stressed-unstressed-stressed amphisbaenic or backward, rhyme Sound Element Rhyme in reverse. later/retail ; stop/pots. anachronism A poetic device, adding an image which is completely out of place either by time, event, or person. anaclasis Substituting a different measure to break the rhythm of a metric line. anacoluthon Greek-not consistent, an interuption which is followed by a syntatically different phrase. anacrusis Metric Pattern. Unstressed syllabic prefix outside of the metric pattern. anadiplosis Greek-double back. When the last word of a line is repeated as the first word of the next line. Anagram Word play, the transposition of one word or phrase to another. This has been a tool of light verse, occasional verse and epigraphs probably as far back as the written word. e.g. transposing Mary to army anapest Metric Pattern. Metric foot of 2 unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable. (uuS e.g. through the night / understand) anaphora A sound element. Greek for repetition, "a carrying, up or back" A rhetorical device in which there is repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or lines. Martin Luther King Jr's famous speech "I had a dream" is an example. anastrophe or antistrophe "Counterturning or turning back" a change of voice from the previous strophe but maintaining the same meter. (As demonstrated at the 2nd strophe of the Pindaric Ode.) It the inversion or unusual order of words or clauses. anceps Metric Pattern. (doubleheaded) In quantitative verse, a metric foot with a syllable which can be either long or short. Usually only one foot in a line will be anceps; it is common in Aeolic verse. Anisometric Verse Verse that is unmetered and the lines within the strophe are uneven. antepenultimate 3rd to last in a series. anthimeria One part of speech substituted for another, such as a noun for a verb. anthropomorphism An abstract taking on the character of a person. antibacchic Metric Pattern. Metric foot of long-long-short. (I have never seen this, rare in English.) antispast Metric Pattern. Metric foot of short-long-long-short (another really rare one) antistrophe The second part or strophe of the Pindaric Ode, usually written with the same structure and the first strophe. antithesis Figure of speech, when contrasting words or phrases are closely placed. antonym Words of opposite meaning. Antonymic translation where antonyms are substituted for words in a text, this gives a sentence, paragraph, line the opposite meaning apheresis A letter or syllable omitted at the beginning of a word. " 'Twas the night before Christmas." aphorism A precise observation, this could apply to an objective scientific observation or it could be a pithy or sarcastic observation delivering fact in a humorous manner. A gnome. apocopate rhyme A sound element. (Greek to cut off ) Lines rhyming on the penultimate syllable. OR rhyme of parts of a word summer/ come ; timely / rhyme apocopate Removal of a syllable or letters at the end of word. aporia An expression of doubt or anxiety. The opposite of adynaton. apostrophe from Greek -"to turn away" a writing technique in which the poet addresses someone not there or addresses an object as if it is a person. Coleridge's - To William Wordsworth L1 "Friend of the Wise," . Arabic Verse Forms Verse forms from the Middle East archaism The deliberate use of an archaic word or phrase to evoke a sense of another time in the distant past. archetype A recurring character, event or symbol that crosses cultures. Archilochian Verse A heptameter named for the Greek poet Archilochus that is made up of 4 dactyls followed by 3 trochees. Suu/Suu/Suu/Suu/Su/Su/Su. Spondees can be substituted for any dactyl in Greek measure. Arlabecca verse Occitan genre of verse of the Middle Ages, a song "defined by" poetic meter. arsis and thesis Metric Pattern. The rise and fall or the accented and unaccented parts of a poetic foot. Ars Poetica Latin - art of poetry - Poetry about writing poetry. The genre dates back to ancient times and can be found in the writings of Aristotle and Horace. It explores what is poetry and how to write it. Probably the most famous poem about the art of poetry is titled Ars Poetica by Archibald Mac Leish Art Mayor A Spanish term to identify any line of 9 or more syllables. However, it commonly refers to a specific pattern of a double adonic line. (A tetrameter line made up of dactyl/trochee/dactyl/trochee Lss/Ls/Lss/Ls) Art Menor Spanish term that refers to any verse of 8 or less syllables. asclepiad Metric Pattern. An Aeolic meter built around the choriamb (metric pattern of LssL). The common example is a spondee followed by 2 choriambs and an iamb. LL LssL LssL sL assonance A sound element. A rhetorical device in which vowel sounds are repeated regardless of the consonants before and after. In English this is usually within a line but in other cultures, Welsh and Spanish in particular this can be between internal or end words of different lines. asyndeton "unconnected" A poetic device to omit conjunctions or connective words to create a feeling piling on or overwhelming evidence. Found in European baroque verse. auditory image A word or phrase that triggers the readers auditory sense. Austrian Verse Forms Verse Forms from Austria. B Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms B baccius Metric Pattern. A metrical foot consisting of a short syllable followed by two long syllables or an unstressed syllable followed by two stressed syllables. Ballad A universal stanzaic form of poem or song that tells a tale in the language of the common man. In English there is an identifiable rhythmic pattern that is also associated with the form. bard From Welsh/Celticbardd meaning poet. The ancientbardd not only created verse, he was believed to have magical powers and had great influence in the courts. bathos The unintentional switch from the sublime to the ridiculous. Beast Epic Narrative, poetic genre telling a fictional tale with animals emulating human behavior. beat The rhythm of the verse, in English the pattern of stressed, unstressed sounds. beher Line Measure. (Urdu) Meter or line length of the sher (couplet of the Ghazal). There are 19 types of beher but the most common are short, medium and long. Belarus Verse Forms Verse forms from Belarus. binary meter Metric Pattern. A metric measure that has two syllables per foot, as in iambic, trochaic, pyrrhic, and spondaic meters, sometimes referred to as duple or double meters. Boast or Brag A poetic genre in which 2 speakers try to "one-up" the other. Each topping the other's assertion. bombast Language that is pompous or overdone. Boolean poem Technique using only the words which are common in 2 distinct poems to create a new poem. Bouts-Rimes (French - rhymed ends) A game in which list of rhymes is prepared in advance then given to the players who must write a poem using the rhymes in the order they appear. It is said to be inspired by a minor 17th century, French poet Dulot as a kind of joke after he complained he had lost hundreds of sonnets which turned out to be just the rhymes for the sonnets, no actual poems. Bouts Rimes Breton Lay Originating in France and quickly adapted in England in the Middle Ages, is a poetic genre, a short narrative love poem, often involving Arthurian subjects. e.g. Chaucer's Franklin Tale. Mythology, the supernatural and fairies are liberally employed. As a genre it carries a broad stroke from any verse set in Brittany to the Lais of Marie de France, to Middle English romantic short verse. breve Metric Pattern. In scanning Accentual Syllabic verse, the breve is the symbol used above an unstressed vowel. It looks like a shallow u without the tail. e.g. ă The stressed syllable is identified with a macron which is a straight line above the stressed vowel. e.g. ā bridge A contrasting lyric which often occurs between a verse and chorus. A connector. Also: Metric pattern: An unbroken word within a metric foot. Bridging Title When the first line of a poem is also used as the title. Broadside ballads Poems on a single sheet of paper and set to a traditional tune. Originating in the late 16th century as a cheep form of poetic journalism. Often funny or pathetic accounts of current news events. broken rhyme A sound element. Breaking an end word to create rhyme with another line. Like breaking the word heartbreak carrying the "break" to the next line so that heart can rhyme with part. bucolic A poem centered on the beauty of country life. It is a sub-genre of pastoral verse, bucolic verse is lofty, the realm of upper class, aristocratic country living as opposed to the more humble shepherd and peasant setting of Pastoral or Idyllic verse or the hardships of working in the country described in Georgic verse. burden A central idea commonly repeated in a refrain. burlesque Poetic genre that ridicules or mocks by the use of grotesque exaggeration or by the treatment of a unimportant subject with the gravity due one of great importance. The verse has a little cheeky attitude.Burlesque by Jan Haag Burmese Verse Forms Verse forms from Burma C Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms C cadence The natural rhythm of speech. cacophony A sound element. Words or phrase which create a discordant sound used to mirror the context of their meaning. cadence Latin-falling The rise and fall rhythm of speech caesura A pause mid way in a line, signaled usually by punctuation a comma, semicolon or period. caesura rhyme A sound element. Couplet rhymed at the caesura mid line and alternating at the end of the line as if an alternate rhymed quatrain abab is written as a couplet. Canon Poetry at its highest standard. Canto In epic verse, a major division or section of an extended narrative. (not to be compared to a stanza) Catalan verse Catalan verse in the eastern region of Spain began as prose poetry. By the 15th century narratives in octo-syllabic couplets became popular. Eight syllable lines became a standard in both Catalan and Castilian poetic forms. By the 16th century Castilian became the language of the east and the only poetry that remained in the Catalan language were ballads and a popular religious song. catalectic or catalexis An incomplete metric line. Omission of a syllable at the beginning or end of a metric line. Opposite of acatalectic meaning a complete metric line. catharsis Purification of emotions brought about by a vicarious (dramatic) experience. caudate rhyme A sound element. Same as tail rhyme, the short line at the end of the stanza rhymes with the other short line in the stanza, with longer lines in between. Celtic Twilight Originally the title of an anthology of works by WB Yeats but later became a generic term of Irish folk lore and mysticism in literature. chain A series of verses or stanzas in which the last word of the verse or stanza is repeated as the first word of the next verse or stanza. chain rhyme A sound element. poetic device, interlocking rhyme that links one stanza to the next. Such as in the Terza Rima rhyme aba bcb cdc etc.There are various chain techniques with a long history see.chain verse. Chansonnier A collection of troubador poems. Chant Poetic genre, short verse with a strong metric rhythm which is repeated frequently. Chantey or shanty French chanter-sing, A poetic genre, a sailor's work song, alternating solo and chorus. chevelle Any word used only to fill in a required syllabic count in a metric line. chiasmus Figure of speech the first half of a line is reversed in the second half. Chinese Verse Forms Verse forms originating in China. choral lyric or chorus Verse meant to be sung as a refrain, but a refrain is usually one or two lines while a choral lyric can be several lines (Originally meant to be sung by a choir.) eg. these infamous lines Take me out the ball game/take me out with the crowd/buy me some peanuts and cracker jacks/ etc. are lines to the "chorus" of Jack Norworth's Take Me Out to the Ball Game choree Metric Pattern. Same as trochee, a metric foot of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. choriamb Metric Pattern. 4 syllable quantitative metric foot made up of LssL or accentual syllabic metric foot of SuuS. cinquain Any poem or stanza in 5 lines. Same as quintain or quintet. cliché An overused phrase or a stereotypical image. City Poem A poetic genre built around the subject of cities or life in the city. The opposite of pastoral poetry. The rise in popularity of these "urban pastorals" came at the turn of the 19th century and the industrial revolution. eg William Blake's London climbing rhyme or step rhyme A sound element. rhyme that moves in or out one syllable per line, the pattern is at the discretion of the poet x x x a x x a x x a x x a x x x x a x x x x a x closed form Verse written in a preexisting pattern of meter, rhyme, line and/or stanza. e.g. Sestina, Triolet, Lai, Limerick etc. Same as fixed form or verse form. closed couplet A stanzaic form, a couplet that is complete in thought and syntax. Also complete couplet and heroic couplet closed verse Verse that is end-stopped. Cobla Esparza Cobla is Occitan for stanza. The Cobla Esparsa refers to an "isolated" stanza or a complete poem in one stanza which were common in 12th century Europe. coda Concluding envoy. comedy A verse meant to be funny. Comiat or Comjat (Occitan-dismissal) A poetic genre, verse dismissing a lover. Composite Sonnet A sonnet that is made up of parts (usually evidenced in the rhyme scheme) of other better known sonnet forms such as taking the octave of a Shakespearean Sonnet and ending with the sestet of a Petrarchan Sonnet. compound rhyme A sound element When a group of words rhyme like one word, The jack of all trades / He slacks in tall shades. conceit Italian consetto=concept or idea A poetic device that uses elaborate comparisons such as comparing a twinkle in a loved ones eyes to the sparkle of thousand stars. Common language to create unusual or novel images. concrete Palpable, real, touchable. connotation The tone set by the suggested rather than literal meaning of a word. consonance A sound element. Poetic device, shared similar consonant sounds but different vowel sounds as in season and raisin or sometimes only the last consonant sound such as fame and room. This is a simplified meaning, definitions of consonance or slant rhyme seem to wander all over the place. For a more complicated definition see "consonate". also slant rhyme. "He whispered into the dark, dank heart of the night" The prominent and repeated "d" "t" and "k" sounds are consonance. consonant rhyme A sound element. Same consonant sound at either the beginning of the lines (head rhyme) or the last consonant at the end of the line (common in Celtic and Spanish verse). consonate A sound element. According to Lewis Turco's, Book of Forms, "to consonate is to create a compatible or similar sound, to agree or harmonize". It appears most often in matching end consonants, but not always. The easiest to identify is first and last consonant of the word, also called frame-rhyme or para-rhyme (bike / bake). Consonance assumes all vowel sounds are interchangeable, as are some consonant sounds, but it distinguishes between the soft and hard sounds of consonants created by proximity to other consonants. (e.g. the soft sound of g in "page" and the harder sound of the dg in "edge" content The subject matter of the poem. Conversation Poem A poetic genre, a poem in which the reader is seemingly listening in on a casual conversation concerning a serious subject. corona Any series of fixed verse forms linked by the repetition of the last line of each verse as the 1st line of the next verse and the last line of the last verse is the 1st line of the first verse. e.g. A Corona of Villanelles or a Corona of English Quintets. corrupted form Intentional disregard of the criteria of a poetic verse form. couplet 2 lines representing a poetic thought unit. Crambo A game in which one player gives a word or line of verse to be rhymed by the other players. Similar to Bouts Rimes cross rhyme A sound element. When the end word rhymes with a word in the middle of the next line. This comes from the old long hemistiched couplets in which rhyme occurs (ab)(ba): L1 xxxa,xxxb L2 xxxb,xxxa. NPEOPP. crown A series of stanzas with the last line of the stanza repeated as the first line of the next stanza. Crown of Sonnets A series of 7 Petrarchan Sonnets linked by the repetition of the last line of each sonnet as the 1st line of the next sonnet and the last line of the 7th or last sonnet is the 1st line of the 1st sonnet. Cut-Up A technique in which a poet cuts up a poem he/she has written and then reassembles it in random order hoping for a fresh perspective. cywddydd or cynghannedd Welsh harmony of sound All ancient Welsh and Celtic poetry is said to be written in cynghannedd. The harmony is accomplished through the controlled echoing of sounds through alliteration, assonance or consonance. These sounds are meant to offset any over-emphasis of the main rhyme, to create balance of sound. Czech Verse Form Verse originating in Czechoslovakia. D Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms D dactyl Metric foot of a stressed syllable followed by 2 unstressed syllables (Suu e.g. holiday) dead metaphor Because of overuse a metaphor becomes dead, uninteresting. eg love is a rose. decastich (deca=units of 10) Stand-alone 10 line poem. Also could refer to a strophe or stanza of 10 lines. decameter Line measure. 10 metric feet in a line. decorum Adherance to traditional content and structure. denotation The literal meaning of a word. dialect A local or provincial form of language, often used in verse to separate or identify a character with a particular time or place. descriptive verse Verse that describes in detail a particular scene. dialogue Dramatic poetry, a poem with 2 or more voices communicating. Not necessarily taking opposite sides. diction Choice of words used to express ideas or emotions. Didactic A poetic genre, verse meant to instruct of teach. It is also assumed that the reader will learn from the teaching, often moral, theological, political, socialogical or theoretical. dimeter Line measure. 2 metric feet in a line. dipodic verse Verse written in lines with 2 heavy stresses and any number of unstressed syllables. dispondee Metric Pattern. Two spondees combined into a single foot. dissonance A sound element. Unharmonious syllables,words or phrases deliberately used to create a harsh tone. Whitman's To A Locamotive distich Greek - 2 related lines, a couplet, complete and closed. A poem in 2 lines. distributed stress Metric Pattern. (sometimes called hovering accent) In scansion, indecision over which of 2 syllables is stressed. disyllabic Line measure. 2 syllables. ditty A short lyrical verse meant to be sung. Light verse, usually witty. dodeca Line measure. Measures of 12- dodecameter =12 metric feet, dodecasyllable =12 syllables in the line. doggerel Deliberately clumsy, unskilled verse written for comic effect. double In poetry, double simply means to make 2 of any fixed verse form therefore expanding the content. Double haiku = 6 lines. Double Sonnet = 28 lines etc. double iamb Metric Pattern. In a metric line, 2 metric feet of a pyrrhic, followed by a spondee. double rhyme A sound element. When both syllables of a 2 syllable word rhyme with both syllables of another 2 syllable word. e.g. dapper / rapper Drab Poetry Unadorned verse. It has its origins in the Tudor period, Henry VIII. Poems were referred to as "drab poetry" when they used straight forward language, simple images, no metaphors or other figuarative speech. dramatic monologue When a poem is narrated by an imaginary character as if he/she is making a speech from a play. 19th century poets such as Hardy, Browning, Tennyson and Eliot used this technique. The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock Dramatic Verse Verse to be performed in character. This is one of the 3 categories of poetry, along with Lyrical and Narrative Verse. Dub Poetry Performance poetry spoken over reggae rhythms, from 1970s Jamaica. It is prepared rather than extemporaneous and primarily concerned with political or social reform themes. Dub Poetry dunadh Beginning and ending the poem with the same syllable, word or line bringing the poem full circle. (A defining feature of ancient Celtic poetry.) duple meter Line measure. Same as monometer. A metric line with 1 metric foot. Glossary of Poetic Terms A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W-X-Y-ZGenres, Devices, Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z
  5. Tinker

    Glossary of Poetic Terms E - O

    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Glossary Definitions are simplified and limited to their use within the scope of poetic study. I recommend the use of a good dictionary for more complete explanation. Poetic terms defined A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z Genre, Devices, Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z. E Also See Poetic Genre and Verse Forms eclogue A short custodial poem, a caring dialogue. A poetic genre. eclogue débat A lyrical argument between 2 persons who care for one and another. A sub genre of eclogue. ecphrastic or ekphrastic Greek (speaking out) A genre of verse that can be traced to ancient Greece and Homer’s Iliad. It is a poem inspired by another piece of art such as a painting or sculpture. This word painting should be a lucid self contained description of the inspiration. West Clare, August Eisteddfod Annual Welsh Bardic Festival where a chief Bard is appointed every 3 years a tradition from ancient times and poetry contests are held. The ancient meters are still honored there. elegy A sustained, formal verse genre composed as a lamentation or sad meditation on the occasion of a death or other solemn event. elision Metric Pattern. (Latin= elisio = stem) Omission of a sound, syllable or running sounds together for meter. o'er ellipsis Punctuation marks . . . or - - - inserted within or at the end of a line suggesting a pause or an omission. emotive language Language charged with emotion. encomium or panegyric A poetic genre, Greek choral lyric celebrating a person's achievements. end-rhyme A sound element. Words at the end of a line rhyming with words at the end of other lines. end-stopped Strong pause at the end of a line directed by punctuation. English Verse Forms Verse forms originating in England. enjambment No stop or pause indicated by punctuation at the end of a line. envelope rhyme A sound element. Rhyme enclosed or surrounded by other rhyme, such as abcba or abba or abccba. envelope verse Any stanza or poem that begins and ends with the same word or line. It is a devise to bring the verse full circle. The ancient Celts called it dunadh and it is a defining feature of Celtic verse. envoi or envoy In French or English, a half stanza at the end of a larger series of stanzas. It is meant to sum up the previous stanzas. It usually carries the same pattern as the verse form to which it is attached. epic A long narrative verse which focuses on a single hero or heroic group and the impact that such heroes have on a historical event, mythical or real. Epicedium Lyrical verse honoring the dead. In ancient Rome this genre was meant to be sung before the corpse and was usually composed in elegiac couplets. epigram A short poem with a humorous twist. epigraph A brief quotation which precedes and establishes a theme for a poem. epilogue Concluding section at end of poem or other literary work. Epinicion Epinicia Greek- Poetic genre, song or ode celebrating a victory in games or war. epistle An instructive or didactic poem written in the form of a letter. epistrophe Repetition of an end word in a successive line for emphasis. Epithalamion or Epithalamium An ode celebrating the wedding night and the morning after written in 3 parts. epithet An adjective or phrase that describes a attribute or characteristic of a person. eg. strong-willed or swift-footed epitrite Metric Pattern. Greek- metric foot that includes one short syllable followed by 3 long syllables or unstressed followed by 3 stressed syllables. sLLL or uSSS epizeuxis Sound element Figure of speech, when a word or phrase is repeated one or more times in a row, with no words in between. Done for dramatic emphasis and should be used sparingly. "Liar, liar, liar!" is an example. epode The 3rd section of a formal verse such as an ode. Usually it is a coming together of the first 2 sections, written in a different structure or frame and often shorter than the previous 2. Epyllion Greek -(little epic or scrap of poetry) is a short narrative poem in dactylic hexameter. These poems often included a love interest. This genre was a favorite of the Hellenistic era and featured vivid descriptions and a tendency to psychoanalyze. equivalence Metric formula 2 short syllables equal 1 long syllable. erotic poetry Poetry that includes adult themes with overt sexual images. escondig Occitan - a genre of verse practiced by the troubadours, expressing a lover's apology. Ethnopoetics Poetry, especially oral verse which is percieved as tribal or ethnic by Western standards. This can also refer to cross cultural boundries. eg Native American poetry euphony A sound element. A figure of speech, words that soften an image. The harmonious sound when sounds of words connect with the connotation in a way to please the ear and mind. The opposite of cacophony. eg "The seven days war that put the world to sleep." L2 from The Horses by Edwin Muir exact rhyme A sound element. Full or true rhyme when the sounds following the initial letters of the word are identical in sound. Exemplum Latin - A poem giving an example, an illustrative or moralizing tale. explication "unfolding" an in depth analysis of a poem, examining the entire poem in explained detail. Exquisite Corpse A group poetry exercise. 1 person writes some words then folds the paper to hide all or part of the words, passes it to the next person who without unfolding, adds more words then folds again and passes it to another person and so on. extended metaphor A metaphor that goes beyond the usual word or phrase but continues throughout a stanza or poem. eye or sight rhyme Rhyme that has the same spelling but sound differently. e.g. laughter / daughter idea/flea extempore poetry Impromptu poetry. F Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms F fable A narrative poem telling a fictional tale (often using animals as the characters) which ends with a moral. fabliau 13th century French, the jongluers short narrative verse, most often comic, bawdy or satirical. Common subjects, cuckold husbands, bungling peasants and greedy clerics. Chaucer reinvented some of the French fabliaux in his Canterbury Tales. The genre fizzled out by the 16th century. falling meter Metric Pattern. Trochaic or dactylic meters in which the first syllable is accented or stressed followed by one or more unaccented or stressed syllables. Accentual syllabic Su or Suu ~ Quantitative Ls or Lss fancy Metaphors from the imagination. Sometimes associated with superficial phrases. feghoot Per Wikipedia "A story pun (also known as a poetic story joke or Feghoot) is a humorous short story or vignette ending in an atrocious pun (typically a play on a well-known phrase) where the story contains sufficient context to recognize the punning humor.[1] It can be considered a type of shaggy dog story." Example feminine ending Line with an extra unstressed syllable at the end. Also known as a hypermetrical line. feminine rhyme A sound element. A rhyme of 2 or more syllables in which the stress is on other than the last syllable such as moral / quarrel or healthiest / wealthiest figurative language A phrase, sentence or poem that says one thing but means or suggests something else. eg. metaphor, personification, symbol, simile etc. fixed form Traditional verse form requiring predetermined elements of structure which can include # of lines, # of stanzas, measure of the line, rhyme etc. foot Line measure. Unit of measure of the line, usually consisting of 2 or 3 syllables with at least 1 syllable accented. form The construct or framework by which the poet expresses meaning. The elements of the structure of the verse. eg meter, rhyme, stanza length etc. Forms Redoubled Any verse form, in which the original poem is used as the text or mote, each line is then glossed or expanded upon in the same form. eg. a Hutain redoubled means the original poem (8 lines) becomes the text, each line is then glossed or expanded upon in the same form, in this case another Hutain per line which finally results in 9 Hutains in all or a total of 8 x 8 = 64 lines plus the original poem of 8 lines for a grand total of 72 lines. The line of the original may begin or end the each octave. This can be done with any fixed form. Four Ages of Poetry Term created by Thomas Peacock in which he classified the periods of love as either iron, gold, silver or brass. Four Meanings of Poetry Poetry classified by either 1. Sense - literal interpretation, 2. Feeling - the emotion behind the poem, 3. Tone - attitude, 4. Intention - the purpose or effect intended. From IA Richards, Practical Critisism 1930. Fourteener Line measure. A line written in 2 parts separated by caesura. It is patterned in iambic heptameter (7) and grew to popularity in 16th century English poetry. Most often the caesura occurs sometime after the 3rd foot. frame rhyme or para-rhyme A sound element. Consonance occurring front and back of the word. back/bike boat/bait French Verse Forms Verse forms originating in France. G Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms G Galician Verse Galician verse from the western region of what we now know as Spain was the first Hispanic lyrical poetry and dominated Hispanic literature from the 12th century to the 14th. galliambic meter Line measure. Specialized metric line originally used to create a frenzied rhythm. 2 metric feet of ssLsLsLL / ssLssssL Gap Occitan - Troubadour's boasting song which was presented in the manner of a challenge much like modern day sport's chants Genethliamcum Poem in honor of a birth, ode or occasional verse. Genre A tradition or classification of poetry based on its approach or intent rather than frame. It is a grouping derived from subject matter, theme, tone or style of the poem. Such as the Aubade - the parting of lovers at dawn, or Abstract poetry - communicating through word sounds as much as through their meaning, or Pastoral - descibing an idyllic country setting. Usually the frame or structure is left to the discretion of the poet. Georgian Verse Verse originating in Georgia Georgic A poem using the theme of rural or farming work as opposed to Pastoral or Idyllic verse which centers on the simplicity of country life or bucolics which is a more lofty aristocratic view of country life. Modern day Georgic verse is "how to" poetry instructions for the arts and sciences. German Verse Forms Verse forms originating in Germany Germanic lines Long lines written in a mimumum of 7 metric feet, Accentual meter and often composed as 2 short lines in 1 usually separated by caesura. geste Old French-Romantic narrative verse telling of heroic exploits Gleeman Old English minstral who recited his own verse as well as that of troubadours. Glyconic Verse Verse named for Greek poet Glycon and best found in verse by Catullus and Horace. It is basic Aeolic meter. Line of verse 3 trochees followed by a dactyl. Gnome or Gnomic Verse Greek-genomos earth dweller. Short verse stating a proverbial truth. An aphorism or pithy statement. grammatical parallelism An independent clause presenting parallels or opposites in balance. The line employs the same grammatical elements for each side of the parallel. This pattern is often used in prose poetryor written in long lines broken into 2 short lines at the caesura. Its use dates to biblical times. Probably one of the best known example of "grammatical parallelism" is Matthew 5:3-11, commonly known as The Beatitudes, "Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be comforted." Grand Style A phrase used to describe the lofty or elevated tone of poets such as Homer, Pindar, Dante and Milton by Mathew Arnold. Greek Verse Forms Verse forms originating in Greece Grub Street The name of a street in London which has also become a term associated with inferior verse. H Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms H Haikuization a technique in which the rhyming parts of an existing poem are kept, but the rest of the words are eliminated. John Drury gives the example from the last stanza of Yeat’s ‘Sailing to Byzantium’ removing all but the rhyme “Never take/any natural thing./Make/enameling/awake./Sing/of Byzantium/to come.” half rhyme A sound element. Feminine or three-syllable words in which the initial stressed syllables rhyme but not the unstressed syllables e.g. clingy / singing Hamd Urdu poetic genre written in praise of God. Hazal Urdu poetic genre of funny or humorous poetry. head rhyme A sound element. Matching the beginning consonant of the line with the beginning consonant of subsequent lines in the stanza or poem depending on the rhyme scheme. However, while still alliterative, with the matched consonant heading the line, it is often seen as the first syllable in each line rhyming with the first syllable of the ensuing lines. head and tail A sound element. First and last, usually referring to rhyming the first and last word in a line. headless iamb When in a metric line, the unstressed syllable of the first iambic foot is dropped, also known as an acephalous line. hemistich Line measure. Half line, signaled at the end of each half by caesura. hendeca Line measure.eleven - (hendecameter =11 metric feet in a line, (hendecasyllabic=11 syllables per line)(hendecastich=11 line poem) hepta Line measure.seven (heptameter = 7 metric feet in a line) (heptasyllabic= 7 syllables in a line) (heptastich = 7 line poem) heroic octave In English, a poetic unit of 8 iambic pentameter lines linked by rhyme. A Sicilian octave, Italian octave, Heroic Rispetto and the Ottava Rima are all heroic octaves. heroic verse or meter Named for its use in Epic poetry, in which the "deeds of brave men are narrated", Isidore of Seville NPEOPP, verse written in elevated language. In English verse written in iambic pentameter lines linked by rhyme, in French it is analexandrine lineand in Greek and Latin it is the dactylic hexameter. Heroic verse is called the staple of English poetry. heteronym Phrase for alter ego through which poets create. hexa Line measure. six (hexameter= 6 metric feet in a line) (hexasyllabic = 6 syllables per line) (hexastich= six line poem). Hermann's Law or Bridge Metric Pattern: An unbroken word in the 4th foot of a hexametric line. Named for the scholar who discovered the word pattern. Hijv Urdu satirical poetic genre. Respected poets rarely use this genre because it is considered abusive and inferior to other poetry. holorime or holorhyme A sound element. Rhyme that envelopes the entire line, phrase or stanza. Repeated sounds within and between lines, not just end rhyme. The tall tree falls. / The ball free crawls. (terrible but it shows how the rhyme pattern works) homophonic A rhetorical device, sound alike words. sea/see. homograph Words spelled the same that are pronounced differently. read (reed) / read (red) homostrophic A poem made up of same structured stanzas created specifically for that poem. hook A phrase that is memorable or catchy. hovering accent Distributed stress, when it is uncertain which of 2 syllables should be stressed. hymn Verse of praise meant to be sung. hymnody Singing or composing hymns. Hudibrastic A humorous, mocking verse named for the poem and character Hudibras published in England in 1663 by Samuel Butler. hyperbole Figure of speech, an overstatement. "higher than the heavens" hypercatalectic or hypermetrical A line with an extra unstressed syllable at the end beyond the last metric foot. eg a hypermetrical iambic pentameter line = In time/ I'll learn/ to write/ in met/ric patt/erns. I Also see Poetic Genre and Verse Forms I iambic Metric Pattern. Metric foot of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. eg. uS - today - daDUM ictus Stress or beat. identical rhyme A sound element. Perfect or same rhyme. Rhyme that is the same vowel and consonant sound of the stressed syllable. identity rhyme A sound element. Ordinary rhyme beginning a step backward. The sounds start being matched before the last stressed vowel. All 3 sounds of the syllable are echoed in identity rhyme, as in foul/fowl as compared to ordinary rhyme growl/fowl. Identity rhyme, also called rime riche or rich rhyme is more commonly used in French prosody than in English. image Mental picture as perceived through the senses, sight, hearing, smell, taste, or touch. imagery The use of words to create an image. Imagism Poetic movement founded by Ezra Pound which attempted to intensify an emotion through a precise and focused image. imperfect rhyme A sound element. Shared similar consonant sounds but different vowel sounds as in season and raisin or sometimes only the last consonant sound such as fame and room. Also off rhyme, near rhyme, slant rhyme or consonance implied metaphor A metaphor when no connective or verb "to be" is used. e.g. Jenny clucked over the red headed toddlers. "clucked" implies Jenny is a mother hen. imprecation Poetic genre, verse requesting divine assistance against an enemy. impromptu On the spur of the moment. incantation Poetic genre, verse meant to be chanted or sung to perform a magical purpose. incremental refrain When the words of a refrain change slightly each time it appears. Indian Verse Form Verse forms originating in India. Infinite Gloss My understanding is that this is "mind mapping" in verse. It is a technique where conceivably, verse in any form can be used but the smaller the form the less complicated the poem becomes. Basically the original poem is glossed both in structure and theme into several satellite poems. I think I get this concept but, when I tried it I found it harder than I thought… I am unsure how to implement this according to the parameters set by the creator The Dread Poet Robert, so I will stop here. Found at Poetry Base with no example, but the site seems to grasp the concept better than I. inscape A term for a natural phenomena as "individually distinctively" described. inspiration "Devine" thought or idea that prompts a poet to write. interlaced rhyme A sound element. A word in the middle of one line rhymes with a word in the middle of another. internal refrain A refrain that repeats within the stanza. The position generally remains the same from stanza to stanza. internal rhyme A sound element. A word within a line rhymes with another word within the line whether or not it is at the end of the line. Internet Poetry Sometimes called hypertext poetry, is verse that uses computer-aided techniques to create a unique visual appearance of poems using typography, background, colour, shape and/or sound. The terma can also be used to describe poetry published on on-line Poetry Magazines. intertextuality The comparison of the text of one poem with another. Usually in parody or one poem inspiring another poem. intonation musical recitation, the sound of a singing voice usually in monotone, uttered tones in a speaking voice Invented Verse Forms Verse form whose structure has been developed revelatively recently for the express purpose of being emulated by contemporary poets. Sometime this is done for poetry workshops, classrooms and in on-line communities as challenges or as a teaching exercise. inversion Metric Pattern. Metric pattern reversal, when an expected stressed or unstressed syllable is switched to its opposite. inverted refrain A rhetorical device or writing technique in which the syntax of the line is inverted. eg the Sapphic line - 'I know not what to do." also a verse form Inverted Refrain invocation (from Latin invocare to invoke) is a prayer in verse that calls upon a higher being. irregular meter Metric Pattern. Mixed metric patterns. Irish Verse Forms Verse form originating in Ireland. irony A figure of speech in which a contradiction of meaning is hidden beneath the surface of the language used. The literal meaning of the words is contradicted by the hidden meaning of the words. isometric verse Verse in which every line is the same length and meter. isostrophic verse Verse in which each strophe or stanza is the same pattern as the other strophes or stanzas. isosyllabic Lines of the same or equal syllable count. Italian Verse Forms Verse forms originating in Italy. Italianate lines Any verse that uses a random combination of 7 syllable and 11 syllable lines. Ivory Tower Metaphor for those who are detached from the real world. J Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms J Japanese Verse Forms Verse forms originating in Japan. jingle A short, catchy, rhymed verse or lyric. jongleur or juggler Middle Ages Occitan minstrel who merely performed another's composition. This is to be distinguished from the troubadour who was also the composer of verse. Juxtaposed line A line that is near to or side by side to the previous line in loosely related images. eg 3rd line of Haiku. juvenalia Early or immature work. Also verse written in the satirical style of Greek poet Juvenal. K Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms K Kafi (Arabic meaning group) is a genre of Sufi poetry meant to be a "dialogue between Soul and Creator." A descendant of the Qasida, the Kafi is popular in Pakistan and India and usually sung. It is described as a monorhymed ode with a refrain of one or two lines repeated throughout the poem. kana Syllabic Japanese script which contrasts with the logographic Chinese characters. Keatsian Verse written in the style of John Keats. kenning Old Norse: A metaphor using 2 substitute nouns. Sea horse= ship, benja tar tears of wounds = blood Kinetic Poetry Shape poetry that gains momentum from the designed layout of the letters/words/lines on the page, literally, words in motion. To write Kinetic poetry you need the soul of the poet, the mind of a computer geek and some training in computer graphics. kireji Japanese (cutting word) to switch to a surprise or contradictive image - used in the 2nd unit or line of the haiku. kitsch Yiddish, verse that is pretentious, thrown together. Korean Verse Forms Verse forms originating in Korea. Kulyat Persian - A poetry collection of a single poet's work. L Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms L Latin Verse Verse forms developed mostly by clerics in the early Christian church. Latvian Verse Form Verse forms originating in Latvia. Lay A short narrative verse. usually a historical tale, originally meant to be sung. The frame of the poem is at the poet's discretion. It is a descendant of, but not to be confused with the French verse form Lai. Left Handed Poem Any poem that takes the reader in one direction then at the last moment makes a surprise switch to an entirely different conclusion. So named by American poet Johnn Schroeder who favored a single quatrain rhymed abab, making the abrupt change in L4. leitmotif A theme that runs through a piece of work. Leonine A line written with 2 syllable rhyme midway and at the end of the line. Originally employed to rhyme at a midway caesura and line end, found in ancient Latin writing. "They took some honey and plenty of money."---- Edward Lear, Owl and the Pussycat. lexicon Particular words which appear throughout the work of a poet that mark the work as recognizably his/hers. Libel Verse A Renaissance revival of classical Greek denunciatory or abusive language in verse. A poetic genre of very course, satirical, political verse which was shared among partisans but rarely published. Found at Kaleidoscope light rhyme A sound element. The rhyming of a stressed syllable with an unstressed syllable, like some / ransom Light Verse A short poem of any verse form which is meant to be light, humorous or satirical. e.g. Limerick, Little Willie etc. ligne donnée A line of verse gifted to the poet by the gods or his/her muse. line The basic component of a poem, the fundamental element of verse. Its purpose is to increase the density of the information and gives focus to the words. linguistics The study of language and its structure. linked or run over rhyme Sound Element End word of one line rhyming with the first word of the next line in a chain like effect. Also a rhyme from one stanza being carried over into next stanza such as aba bcb cdc etc Lipogram Technique or gimmick in which one or more letters are never used in a line, poem, sentence, paragraph. literary The writing or study of literature, especially lieterature at its best. litotes Figure of speech using ironic understatement which confirms by denying the opposite. logaoedic Metric Pattern. A line of mixed meter using iambs, trochees, dactyls and anapests. logopoeia A poem that combines Ezra Pound's notions of 'emotional correlations by sounds and rhythm of speech' and 'throwing a visual image on the mind' log-rolling When authors/poets favourably review each other's work in order to boost sales. love poetry Poetry that deals with all of the factors of "love", including the ups and the downs. lullaby Goodbye, goodnight. A loving, soothing verse often sung to put a child to sleep. lyre Ancient Greek stringed instrument used to accompany the recitation of poetry. lyric Pertaining to a lyre, verse meant to be sung expressing the emotion of the writer. Lyrical Verse One of the 3 groups or categories of poetry. Verse originally meant to be sung. Lyrical verse is usually written in the first person as an emotional or subjective (emphasizing the personal or individual) response to an experience. The other 2 divisions are Narrative and Dramatic Verse. M Also see Poetic Genre and Verse Forms M Macaronic Verse Verse written in a combination of 2 languages, one preferably in Latin. This technique originated by Italian poet Teofelo Folengelo (1491-1544), creates words beginning in one language and ending with the other language which could result in nonsense. Madah Urdu poetic genre written in praise of patrons or royalty. Madrigal A short secular verse using a combination of 2 types of rhythms in a line. It originated in 14th century Italy and is often composed around love or pastoral themes. magnum opus An artist's great work. Mal Mariée Old French, 13th to 16th centuries a genre of "Women's Poetry" in which the poet over hears a woman's complaints or laments, usually over the difficulties from her arranged marriage. Many verse forms were used and the genre spread into Italy and finally England. Malaysian Verse Form Verse form originating in Malaysia. Maldit (Occitan-curse) a troubadour's song complaining about a lady's character. Maldit-comiat (Occitan - curse-dismissal) a popular Catalan troubadour's verse renouncing a lady or a lover but it can be taken another step to complaining about or rejecting someone other than a lady or lover, like a commander or employer. Manqaabat Urdu poetic genre written in praise of the family of the Holy Prophet. A Sufi devotional poem. mantra Vedic - A prayer song, but in a more complicated definition, it is a formula, comprising words and sounds which are believed to possess a magical or divine power. The mantra is meant to transpose the speaker to a spiritual union with the divine. masculine line ending A line that ends on a stressed syllable. masculine rhyme A sound element. Rhyme in a 1 syllable word or on the accented last syllable of a multi syllable word. Mask or Persona Poem A poem in which the subject of the poem narrates the poem. The subject need not be a person, it could be an inanimate object such as a tomb speaking or an animal, a dog speaking, etc. Persona meiosis Understatement. melopoeia Ezra Pound's idea of 'emotional correlations by sounds and rhythm of speech' metaphor Poetic device to transfer meaning or describe one thing by providing the image of another. The transfer is direct. Love is a rose. meter Metric Pattern. The rhythmic measure of a poetic line. metonymy A figure of speech in which something is so closely associated with another thing that its name can be substituted for the name of the other. Suit = executive Metrical Laws Metric Patterns: Laws are simply patterns of Greek meter observed by modern academics. They can be limited to genre, meter or author. They are the recognition of "the coordination of words within meter" and are often named for the scholar who discovered the pattern. See Meyer's Law and Herman's Law Metrical Romance Any metrical verse whose theme is honor and or chivalry. The Chanson and Courtly Compliment fall under this category. Meyer's Bridge or Law Metric Pattern - An unbroken word within a second metric foot of a hexameter. Named for the scholar who discovered the word pattern. mimesis Poetic imitation of reality. Minnesingers Medieval German poet-singers mostly of noble birth, the German equivalent to the Provencal troubadors. mirror image A poetic device or technique to reflect back an element of the poem's frame (line length, rhyme, # of lines etc.) as if looking in a mirror. mixed metaphor 2 or more incompatible metaphors used in verse which contradict or confuse each other. e.g. He was such a tower of strength that he breezed through the battle. towers can't breeze modulation Sound Element In poetry, the harmonious use of language relative to the variations of stress and pitch. It is a process by which the stress values of accents can be increased or decreased within a fixed metrical pattern. molosis Metric Pattern. Metric foot of 3 long or stressed syllables. monody Greek "singing alone" An elegy meant to be sung by a single mourner. A genre of usually short verse that laments a death with the frame, meter, and rhyme at the discretion of poet. monologue Old English verse, a single person's dramatic discourse, speaking to someone else. Half a conversation. monometer Line measure. 1 metric foot. mono-rhyme A sound element. Verse with a single rhyme, rhyme scheme aaaa. mote A sentence, often written in single line, especially when the sentence is short. It expresses a complete statement or thought, used at the beginning of a poem to be expanded upon in the body of the poem. Munaajaat Urdu poetic genre written as a lyrical prayer. muse Spirit of inspiration. In classic tradition, the nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne who inspired artists and musicians. Calliope, Euterpe, Erato and Polyhymnia were specifically responsible for inspiring poets N Also see Poetic Verse Form N Naat Poetry Arabic -praise - Islamic poetry that praises the prophet Mohammad. Narrative Verse The main focus of the verse is to tell a story. It is one of the 3 directions of poetry which includes Lyrical Verse and Dramatic Verse. Nasher A satirical couplet of wrenched rhyme, creating puns, or twisted words to create a rhyme. The lines themselves may be of any meter or not at the discretion of the poet. The couplet is one among other couplets. The couplet is named for the 20th century American poet, Ogden Nash. near rhyme A sound element. Shared similar consonant sounds but different vowel sounds as in season and raisin or sometimes only the last consonant sound. e.g. fame/room. Same as off rhyme, imperfect rhyme, slant rhyme or consonance. negative capability Term describes the poet's ability of 'being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason', attributed to John Keats. neologism The creation of new words. nom de plume Pen name. nonce A structured form unique to and developed for one specific poem. nonometer Line measure. 9 metric feet in the line. Nonsense Verse The words are pretty self explanatory, verse that is nonsense. e.g. Madsong Stanza or Barzelletta and Frottola etc. Norse Verse Verse form originating in Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark. Nursery rhyme Nursery Rhymes, rhymed verse meant for children. Some popular rhymes date back to 14th century England but it wasn't until the 18th century that they were written down. The early nursery rhymes were not just written to entertain children, many reflected the events of the times. The popular Ring Around the Rosey is thought to describe symptoms of the Black Plague of the Middle Ages. Most are written in accentual meter and often use the ballad stanza. O Also see Poetic Genre and Verse Form O objective correlative Concrete or specific situation/location/thing which evokes a particular emotion in the reader. The term is attributed to TS Eliot. oblique rhyme A sound element. Near rhyme. obsequy Funeral song. Occasional Verse Verse are written in honor of a particular event or person. Occasional poetry may be written in any structural pattern including some of the Ode patterns. Occitan The dominant language of southern France between 1000 A.D. and 1300. This is the language of the troubadours who had a major influence on French, Italian and Spanish verse. octameter Line measure. 8 metric feet in the line. octave or octet Any poem or stanza in 8 lines. octastich A poem in 8 lines. ode A lyrical poem that praises, exalts, elevates or favorably contemplates a subject. off rhyme A sound element. Shared similar consonant sounds but different vowel sounds as in season and raisin or sometimes only the last consonant sound such as fame and room. Also near rhyme, imperfect rhyme, slant rhyme, or consonance. onji Line measure. Japanese metric measure which translates "sound character without meaning" which is expressed in kana, syllabic Japanese script. The onji is impossible to emulate in English so we default to the closest English equivalent, the syllable. e.g. the Japanese word for Japan is Nippon, in English we count Nip-pon, 2 syllables, the Japanese would count ni-p-po-n, 4 onji, written in script is 日本, 2 kana. onomatopoeia A sound element. A word that imitates the sound associated with its meaning such as "BooM" or "hiss". OULIPO acronym for "Ouvrioir de litterature potentiell" ~ ourvrior is a "workroom in a convent". OULIPO was a 1960s French poetic movement of poets and methematicians that experimented with and explored rhetorical game like forms. Open Form Verse that has no prerequisites in the frame or structure of the poem. Also see Free Verse. open verse Lines with no end-stop. oral poetry Poetry meant to be recited outloud. organic form The form taken by poetry which develops naturally from its subject matter - as opposed to prescribed form such as a sonnet or villanelle etc. oxymoron Expression or consecutive words that contradict each other. eg pretty ugly / clearly confused / living dead/ alone together. oxytone Greek, words with the stress on the last syllable. eg. reward Poetic terms defined A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z Genres, Devices, Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z
  6. Tinker

    Glossary of Poetic Terms P - Z

    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Glossary Definitions are simplified and limited to their use within the scope of poetic study. I recommend the use of a good dictionary for more complete explanation. Poetic terms defined A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z Genre, Devices,Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z P Poetic Genre and Verse Forms P paeon Metric Pattern Metric foot of one long and three short syllables in any order Palindrome Word, phrase, poem that reads the same backward as forward. eg radar Palinode The retraction of a statement from a previous poem written by the same poet. panegyric Greek choral lyric celebrating a person's achievements. same as encomium para-rhyme or frame-rhyme A sound element. Consonance occurring front and back of the word. Also called double consonance. back/bike boat/bait parable A short narrative with a moral. The moral theme is usually left to interpretation rather than being explicitly being stated as in the fable. paradox A figure of speech which is seemingly a self contradictory concept that on reflection becomes some deeper meaning. from Milton's Methought I Saw L14 "I waked, she fled, and day brought back my night." parallelism Side by side comparisons in verse usually using similar frames. parataxis Clauses one after another without any conjunctions. "I came, I saw, I conquered." Julius Caesar Parody Greek (a song sung beside…) Verse that is the satirical imitation or mimicking of another's distinctive, usually serious writing. The goal is for comic effect or ridicule. The structure of the poem is dependant upon the structure of the piece being imitated. It is usually regarded as a step up from burlesque. pastoral A poem centered on the beauty and simplicity of country life. This can be mythical with shepherds and nymphs in idealized country settings. Also called bucolic and Idyll poetry. The opposite of Georgic which centers on the work of country life. pentameter Line measure. 5 metric feet within a line. penultimate Second to last of a series, as in a series of stanzas or a series of syllables. Performance Poetry Poetry that is performed 'live' in pubs and clubs - usually from memory. It is often humorous in nature Performance poetry was made popular in the UK by Adrian Mitchell and the Liverpool Poets. Poetry Slam in the US is a form of Performance Poetry, although the poetry takes on all kinds of emotions, anger, fear, determination. periphrasis "Round about" speaking, using unrelated imagery to describe a person, place or thing. sea dragons = war ships persona Latin=clay or bark actor's mask. Poetic or fictional writing genre, a narrative or story told through the development and voice of a fictional character. personification Figurative language that gives human characteristics to a thing, idea or animal. The nonhuman is dramatized in human terms. phanopoeia Ezra Pound's notion of one factor of writing poetry, 'throwing a visual image on the mind' philippic An oral bitter rant or diatribe. In poetic terms it would be a genre or theme. From ancient Rome, orators Cicero and Demosthenes of Athens ranting against the imperialist ambitions of Philip of Macedon wrote many condemning, bitter speeches. Those rants are now referred to as "The Philippics". phirach or pyrrhic Metric Pattern. A metric foot made up of 2 unstressed syllables uu pivot or volta A change in direction of a thought or argument. pleonasm Use of unnecessary word, often done to pad a metric line. poem A written or spoken composition using the line as a foundation. poëme A word used to describe a philosophical, epic or dramtic poem. Introduced by Alfred de Vigny podic Metric Pattern. Folk meter, often found in anonymous nursery rhymes and ballads. It is rhymed verse in the rhythm of normal speech. poesis From Greek - to make, the making of a poem. poesy Archaic English word for poetry. poetic Displaying the best quality of poetry. poetic justice Virtue is rewarded and vice punished. poetic licence The freedom of poets to break the rules of written language and/or change fact to create an effect poetaster or poeticule A writer of light or inferior verse. Also rhymester. poetry Latin-poeta, "Imaginative or creative literature." New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. I could fill a page with definitions of this word from multiple sources. I define "poetry" as the magic that happens when a poet merges craft and soul and touches the reader through words. Someone wrote "any one can write a poem, only rarely does one translate as "poetry". polemic A poem with a contraversial subject. polysyndeton The close repetition of conjunctions. Portmanteau word The artificial combination of parts of words to express their combined qualities. e.g. fog/smoke =smog posteriore (Italian "a posteriore" – rear), indicating the last foot of a metric line changes as when a line of iambic pentameter might be written with 4 iambs and ends with a trochee prayer Verse meant to communicate with the divine, a higher power. pregunta Spanish "question"; Verse that is question-answer between 2 people. The Greeks called this form of verse, stichomythia. Primer Couplet A metered, rhymed, informative distich. Most often it is written in iambic dimeter, rhymed aa. prose The ordinary form of written or spoken discourse without poetic structure or devices. prosody The study of sound and rhythm in verse. Prothalamium,Prothalamion An ode celebrating marriage before the wedding, specifically for the bride. pyrrhic or phirach Metric Pattern. A metric foot made up of 2 unstressed syllables such as "of the". Q See Poetic Genre and Verse Forms Q Qawaalli Urdu poetic genre most often sung. The traditional theme is love of God but more recently the theme can be love of another. Quantitative verse Line measure. A measure of the line by dividing it into metric feet. The metric feet are made up of a combination of long and short syllables. In English, quantitative verse is sometimes difficult to discern and we transition to Accentual Syllabic Verse by default which warps the intent a bit. Or we will often attempt to reduce to the lowest common denominator and simply count syllables, still a little warped. quatorzain Any 14 line poem or stanza. A sonnet is always a quatorzain, a quatorzain need not always be a sonnet. (see Sonnet Comparison Chart) quatrain Any poem or stanza in 4 lines. quintain, quintet or cinquain Any poem or stanza in 5 lines. The words cinquain, quintain and quintet are interchangeable, French Latin and Italian. R Also see Poetic Genre and Verse Forms R rann In Celtic poetry, the 4 line stanza. refrain or repeton A sound element. The repetition of a line, lines or part of a line at intervals in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza. rentrement A sound element. (French - rentrament) A word, phrase or line usually at the beginning of the poem that is repeated as a refrain within the poem. repetend A word, phrase or line that is repeated randomly. repetition A sound element. The recurrence of a phrase or word used for emphasis resononance Sound Element The quality of richness or variety of sounds in poetic texture, as in Milton's . . . and the thunder . . . ceases now To bellow through the vast and boundless Deep. rhetoric The art of persuasion through the manipulation of words rhopalics Metric Pattern. (Greek = club like or thickening at the end) also called Wedge Verse) First used by Homer in the Iliad 3.182. A line in which each word progresses to include 1 more syllable than the preceding word. rhyme A sound element. The echo of vowel and consonant sounds, in English rhyme occurs between stressed syllables. rhyme scheme A sound element. Pattern of rhyme in a poem rich rhyme A sound element. Ordinary rhyme beginning a step backward. The sounds start being matched before the last stressed vowel. All 3 sounds of the syllable are echoed in rich rhyme, as in foul/fowl as compared to ordinary rhyme growl/fowl. Rich rhyme, often called rime riche or identity rhyme is more commonly used in French prosody than in English. riddle Verse that hides the solution to the question it asks. riding rhyme A sound element. A rhymed couplet that is open ended, moving the subject into the subsequent rhymed couplet without pause or punctuation. rime en kyrielle A sound element. When an entire line is used as a refrain rather than just a phrase or word such as in the Pantoum or Villanelle. rising meter Metric Pattern.Meters that are end-stressed. eg. iamb or anapestic Ritornello Musical term often ending the Madrigal or occurs as a recurring passage that contrasts in rhyme and rhythm with of the rest of the lyrics. Similar to a "choral or congregational response". Sometimes called a Tornado. run on Enjambment. running meter Lines of equal length. running rhythm Metric Pattern. Meter with a regular pattern such as iambic pentameter. Russian Verse Form Verse form from Russia. rhymester A writer of light or inferior verse. Also poeticule or poetaster. S Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms S saga An Old Norse prose narrative, epic story of the history, legends and heroes of Iceland and Norway. Salaam Urdu poetic genre of introduction to the goodwill of the holy Prophet. These poems are recited standing. Sapphics Metric verse originally attributed to the Greek poet Sappho, 6 BC. Satirical Verse A verse that makes fun of , ridicules or humorously exposes flaws in a particular individual, society, government, or thing. Alexander Pope, Swift and the Scriblerus Club were all known for their satiral verse. saudade A genre of Galician verse- poems of longing that carry a fatalistic tone. Bittersweet nostalgia or yearning for what might have been. scansion The process of measuring the metrical structure of a line. scop An Old English poet who was held in high regard. Writer of epics and lays to be performed, often by a Gleeman sectional rhyme A sound element. is internal rhyme within the line. e.g.:she'd be his wife, his life in song. Seharan West African poetic genre sung at wedding ceremonies praising the bride, groom and their relatives. Sehra Urdu genre of poetry in which individuals praise their brothers. It is rhymed and isometric but the specific frame is at the discretion of the poet giving variation to the verse. Semitic Verse Forms Verse forms of the Hebrews and Sumerians Septenary or Fourteener Line measure. A line is written in 2 parts separated by caesura. It is patterned in iambic heptameter (7) and grew to popularity in 16th century English poetry. Most often the caesura occurs sometime after the 3rd foot. septet Any 7 line stanza. Serpentine Verse that begins and ends with the same word. Named for the image of a snake with its tail in its mouth. It is symbolic of eternity, without beginning or end. sestet A six line stanza following the octave in a sonnet or other forms in which the group of 6 lines attempts to distinguish itself from other line groups. This is in contrast to the words sixain or sexain which are 6 line stanzas usually written in conjunction with other sixains or sexains as in the Sestina. You will often find sestet misused as synonymous with the sixain. Shantey, Shanty or Chantey French chanter -sing, A sailor's work song, alternating solo and chorus. Short Usually when you see the word Short before the title of a known verse form the metric line of the standard verse form has been cut by one metric foot. e.g. Short Couplet assumes a Couplet is iambic pentameter therefore the Short Couplet is iambic tetrameter etc. sibilant Consonants which create a hissing sound such as s or z. Sick Verse Poetry with an unhealthy obsession with death, desease and dying. simile Comparison of one thing with another, Love is like a rose. A signal word is always used such as: like or as. Sirvente From the Provencal servin=paid soldier. A poetic genre of the 12th -14th centuries, a satirical troubadour song, some times called the Soldier's song. It often took the frame of the Canso. sixain or sexain 6 line stanzas usually written in conjunction with other sixains or sexains as in the Sestina. skald Nordic bard. Skeltonic Verse A poem written in dipodic lines with tumbling rhyme. Sometimes called Tumbling Verse. slack syllable Metric Pattern. An unstressed syllable. slant rhyme or consonance, near rhyme, off rhyme, imperfect rhyme A sound element. Shared similar consonant sounds but different vowel sounds as in bleak and black or sometimes only the last consonant sound such as fame and room. soliloquy Old English verse, a single person's dramatic discourse, speaking to one's self.. Sonnet Italian - sonnetto, "little song", is a lyrical meditation. The sonnet should sing. Even though there are many varieties of the sonnet, it is one of the most identifiable and popular of the verse forms because of its classic 14 line frame, lyrical meter and rhyme, and dramatic pivot or volta. Sonnet Comparison Chart Spanish Verse Forms Verse forms from Spain, including Catalan and Castilian and Galician. spelling rhyme End words that have similar spelling but don't rhyme. move/love spondee Metric Pattern. A metric foot of 2 strong stressed syllables. S-S e.g. night-mare. In quantitative verse, the metric foot is a 2 long sounds or syllables. spoonerism Literary technique reversing the initial consonants of the penultimate end word and end word of the first line in the second line. sprung rhythm Metric Pattern. Meter designed to imitate natural speech. It often begins with a stressed syllable and is followed by variable unstressed and stressed syllables creating a line of mixed irregular feet similar to free verse. However unlike free verse, a poem written in sprung rhythm generally maintains lines with the same number of metric feet throughout. stanza Italian meaning "stopping place" or "room" . Most often stanza refers to a reoccurring uniform pattern of 2 or more lines of verse, the poetic equivalent to a paragraph in prose. A stanza does not stand alone; stanza implies more than one unit. A stanza is also used synonymously with strophe when the units vary in length within the poem, as in free verse. In other words, a stanza must have other units in the same poem whether uniform or not, unlike the strophe which are usually not uniform in structure and can stand alone. stanzaic Poem made up of same structured stanzas. stich A single line of verse written adjacent to other lines. When it stands alone it is a monostich. stichic Line measure.Verse in which all lines having the same metrical form. stichomythia From Greek drama, when 2 characters speak in alternating lines, question and answer. Similar to the Spanish Pregunta. stressed syllable Emphasized or accented syllable. Stretched Sonnet A poem that stretches the boundaries of frame and meter of the traditional sonnet but has the sound and feel of the lyrical meditation typical of the sonnet. strophe Greek meaning "turn" Originally the beginning section of a choral ode in a classical Greek drama where the chorus chanted a verse while turning from one side to another or toward the altar. Initially a unit of quantitative verse of identical metric structure, synonymous with stanza. Later in English the term was loosely extended to mean a structural division of a poem containing non uniform divisions or units of varying length, as in free verse. A strophe can stand alone or refer to a whole poem if there are no breaks. Conversely a stanza does not stand alone and implies more than one unit. Syllabic Verse Line measure. Measuring the line by counting the number of syllables. syllable A unit of pronunciation uttered without interruption, It forms the whole or part of a word. symbol An image that represents more than its literal meaning, something to be felt. synalepha When an adjacent vowel sound is is suppressed. eg "And strike to dust th' imperial tow'rs of Troy" Pope. synecdoche A part of something that represents the whole. suit=corporate synesthesia A sensory experience described in a different sense. Eg. sour sound synonym Words or phrases with the same meaning. finger/digit syntax The way the basic components of a line are arranged. T Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms T tail rhyme A sound element. In a stanza of long lines, the last line is shorter and is rhymed with one other line within the stanza which is also shorter. Tautogram All words begin with the same letter. The original tautograms were in verse but the technique has broadened into prose. This is a visual, literal device - six sisters sing or Christ child come close. unlike the phonetic device of alliteration although a tautogram could also be alliterative. teleutons Sound Element repeated endings tercet Any poem or stanza in 3 lines. tetrameter Line measure. 4 metric feet in a line. tetrastich A poem in 4 lines. Thai Verse Forms Verse forms from Thailand. theme The poem's central idea. tone The emotion or attitude behind the poem. tornada The Occitan tornada is a dedication to a patron or friend added at the end of verse, usually as a 1/2 stanza in the same structural pattern of the previous stanzas. As opposed to the French envoy which is usually a summary of the poem's theme added to the end of the verse. Tornado Ritornello, sometimes called the Tornado, is a musical term often ending the Madrigal or occurs as a recurring passage that contrasts in rhyme and rhythm with of the rest of the lyrics. Similar to a "choral or congregational response". transferred epithet Figure of speech a type of metonymy, is a device of emphasis in which the characteristic of one thing is attributed to another. Hart Crane observing a landscape from an airplane in Part III of For the Marraige of Faustus Helen, an image includes the movement of the plane, "nimble blue plateaus" . tribach Metric Pattern. A metric foot of 3 unstressed syllables. uuu trimeter Line measure. 3 metric feet in a line triple meter Metric Pattern. A metric foot of 3 syllables such as anapests dactyls and amphibrachs triple rhyme A sound element. words that rhyme in 3 syllables eg mystery / history triplet Any mono rhymed poem or stanza in 3 lines. tristich A poem in 3 lines. trochee Metric Pattern. Metric foot of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable in accentual syllabic verse or long sound followed by a short sound in quantitative verse. Su or Ls trochaic Metric Pattern. A line of trochees. Su / Su / Su / Su etc (depending on # of metric feet) troubadour From the Middle Ages 12th-13th centuries, Occitan verb "trobar" = to compose or invent. The troubadour was a composer of lyrics and song. The troubadour were often of the nobility and should be distinguished as composers from the jongluer who was usually his servant of lesser class, a minstrel who merely performed anothers composition. tumbling refrain A sound element. When L1 of the poem is used as a refrain in subsequent stanzas tumbling to the sequential in each stanza, as L2 in S2, L3 in S3, L4 in S4 and L5 in S5. tumbling rhyme A sound element. monorhymed lines until the rhyme runs out of energy then the lines switch to a new mono-rhymed series. twime Synonym for distich. U Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms U Ubi Sunt Latin meaning 'where are they? A thematic genre of verse, a lament for the passing of a person, era or anything held dear. It can be found in Old English the poems like Beowulf and The Wanderer. Or'Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they?' from To Autumn by John Keats. unstressed syllable Metric Pattern. The unaccented or not emphasized syllable. uta Japanese meaning poetry. utamakura Japanese for "poetic pillow" referring to a phrase or word that taps into shared cultural experiences V Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms V vaasokht Urdu poetic genre written about the flaws and carelessness of a lover. Vers de Societe Originally this term referred to poetry that dealt with social issues but today it simply refers to Light Verse. verse Latin versum, "to turn" refers to either a single line of poetry or to an entire composition of poetry. verse form A verse form is an entire composition framed in a specific number of lines with prescribed poetic elements such as stanza breaks, meter, rhyme, rhetorical devices etc. verset Verse which is a surge of language in one breath often a poetic phrase, a fragment of a line or a a very short poem that could be read in one breath. Haiku could technically be called a verset as can the Triversen. Verso Italian for verse, in Italian prosody there are 3 defined lines. Verso Piano is a line in which the principal accent is on the penultimate syllable; Verso Sdrucciolo is any line that ends with a word that has the principle accent on the 3rd to last syllable; and Verso Tronco is a line with the principal accent on the 10th and last syllable. Viadeyra Occitan-Catalan is a popular dance song. It is troubadoric genre of light verse, not "high poetry" with a repeated refrain which occurs after every 2 lines. Viet Verse Forms Verse forms from Vietnam virtual rhyme Rhyme is the echoing of sound in the accented vowel in a word. However in English there are words with secondary accents such as in idolatry the accent or stress is on the 2nd syllable, however there is a lessor or secondary stress in the last syllable idolatry. Virtual rhyme is when the echoed sound is the secondary stressed sound - idolatry / sea. Virtual rhyme only occurs in English. voice The who behind the poem, the sound of the character. volta or pivot A change in direction of a thought or argument. vulgate Latin vulgus, "mob" or "common people" In poetry vulgate refers to the lowest denomination of language, the speech of the common man without refinement. W Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms W Wedge Verse Another term for rhopalic, a line that grows by one syllable with each word. Welsh Verse Forms or Official Welsh Meters Verse forms from Ancient Wales as codified in the 14th century by Einion Offeiriad and edited by Dafydd Ddu Athro. word play Literary technique when the manner words are used become the focus of the poem. eg. puns,spoonerisms, anagrams etc. wrenched rhyme A sound element. When metric stress or accent forces a change in the natural word accent or rhymes a stressed syllable with an unstressed syllable. (lady / to me) Or using a nonsense word to create a rhyme. (correspondence/blondance) It is often done deliberately for comic affect. It is also common in folk verse but it can also occur because of the poet's lack of skill. Z Also see Poetic Genres and Verse Forms X Y Z Zabd shuda Nazmein The title of a collection of poems in Urdu which were declared unlawful to recite or distribute by the colonial Government of India and the British Raj. The poems were banned because of their nationalistic fervour for a sovereign India. zeugma or yoke Figurative language using one word to connect or carry two phrases. Two thoughts held together by one word. Poetic terms defined A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z Genres, Devices, Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z
  7. "There are two men inside the artist, the poet and the craftsman. One is born a poet. One becomes a craftsman. . ." ~ ~ Emile Zola to Cézanne, 16 April, 1860 Poetry stirs the emotions as much by the manner of delivery as the message. The message comes from a poet's experiences, observations, imagination and most importantly, the poet's soul. The manner of delivery or craft comes from a poet's intellect and training. It is magic when soul and intellect work in harmony to touch the reader. Anyone can write a poem, the poet aspires to create the magic beyond the poem, something we call poetry. We write about what we know, feel, imagine or dream, we either have it or we don't. It is how we write that we can study, develop and fine tune. “All the fun is how you say a thing.” Robert Frost. I am a student of poetry, not an authority. I began recording the results of my study to help improve my own writing. I've researched the history and evolution of verse to better understand the craft by gathering a good cross section of resources. Several books as well as the internet were used in this quest and I try to use at least three concurring views to confirm my findings. Of course, what we read in a book or on the internet is not always accurate or complete. Often part of a puzzle is found in one source and a second or third part in another. With that in mind, I believe all of the sources used begin with a passion for poetry. Within this study poetic movements, technique, genre, stanza form, verse form, meter, grammatical and rhetorical devices are separated, categorized and identified as succinctly as possible. To avoid blurring of the lines, I attempt to use precise and sometimes technical language for which a glossary is also provided. However, having said that, literature has never had a universal-agreed upon standard. I try to use terms that I have found most often used by others. The rules or better, the tools of literature evolve, building on what has gone before. Poetry is all about stepping beyond the expected, but a good writer should know the rules before breaking them. In poetry the rules of good writing become tools to be bent, remolded and recreated. Unfortunately, I am limited to resources written in the English language and a little Spanish but I sometimes use examples in other languages. I may not know what the words say but I can count syllables and I can hear rhyme. I love it when a poet attempts to write using an ancient frame. It is not only a challenge to the poet's skills but it also connects the reader in a small way to the roots and evolution of language and literature. Variation of established structures happens all of the time even by the masters and stepping outside of the confines of rigid form is common place. Other than when I am specifically writing a poem as an example of a particular structure I believe the content always comes first, the structure second. But when a traditional frame can enrich the content it is a thing of beauty. Example poems are either provided with the permission of the poet, found in the public domain or were written by me. The material found in the public domain and included within the content of this research is done so on a non-profit basis for educational and discussion purposes only. I believe this qualifies as 'fair use' of copyrighted material as provided for in 17 USC § 107. I sometimes include a stanza from a longer poem in order to demonstrate the frame, particularly if I was unable to contact and secure permission from the poet. Regardless, the author and source is always identified. Also, direct quotes from other sources are credited. If you want to copy my work, you are welcome but please extend me the courtesy of acknowledging where you obtained the information. I appreciate the gracious acceptance and permissions from the poets I have contacted requesting use of their work. So far, none have refused me. A special thank you to Barbara Hartman and Rex Allen Brewer for initially encouraging this effort and assisting me in writing specific example poems and Ike Sarma who continued to challenge me to share this study with precision and clarity. I am grateful to all of the members of the now dissolved Poetry Patrol and Poetry Connection where my journey began. Also a big thanks to the members of Poetry Magnum Opus and Writing.com, notably, Phil Wood, Tõnis Veenpere, DC Martinson, Barry Carter, A Baez, Lucy Lu, David Parsley, Brendan Lyons, Frank Gibbard, Dave Schneider, Robert Murtaugh, Xiao-zhen, Aleksandra, Mike Montreiul, Fred Johnson, Rachel Hommel, Geoffrey Le Voguer, Lawrence Eberhart, Rohit Jain, Zoe Fitzgerald, Tammi, and Arthur Eckhart who have generously given me permission to include some of their work in these articles. And for all of countless hours of technical support in putting this forum together, THANK YOU SO MUCH TONY! Included in the bibliography are many of the sites and books used in this research. Herein are identified over 1000 genres, techniques or forms of poetry. I provide a Glossary of Poetic Terms as well as an Alpha Index to all Poetic Genres, Stanza and Verse Forms and grouping of forms by national origin or genre with links. This site contains the results of my research as it develops. Thanks for reading, Judi Van Gorder AKA Tinker Tinker1111@icloud.com
  8. Explore the Craft of Writing PoetryGenres, Devices, Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - ZAlso See Glossary of Poetic TermsA - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W-X-Y-Z 5/3 Meter 7/5 Trochee 13 Line Sonnet 15-10 Alternating The 160 a la Bartholomew Griffin AA-12 Step Sonnet A L'Arora ABBA Abbreviated Haiku ABC Poem Abecedarius Abercrombie Abhanga Abstract Poetry Academic Verse Accentual Verse Accentual Syllabic Verse Acmeism Acritic Verse Acronet Acrostic Acrostic Sonnet Acrostic Tribute Sonnet Action Poetry Adegem Adonic Line Ae Freislighe Aeolic Ode Aeolic Verse Aesthetic Movement Afflatus African Poetry Aisling Verse Akhmatova's Orphans Alba or Aubade Alcaics Alcmanic Verse Alcmanian Strophe Alejandrino Alexandrine line Alexandrine couplet Alfred Dorn sonnet Allegory Alliterated Alphabet Poem Alliterative Acrostic Trigee Alliterative Verse Allitersen Alouette Alphabestiary Alphabet Character Poem Alphabet Haiku Alphabet Poem Altar Verse Alternating rhymed quatrain Alternating Sonnet Amanda's Dark Sonnet Amanda's Pinch Amaranth American 767 American Forte American Liebre American Sentence American Sonnet American Verse Forms Amphigory Amphigouri Amphion Anaphora Anacreontic Couplet Anacreontic Ode Anagram Analogue Anapeat Anapestic tetrameter Ancient Irish Forms Ancient Verse Andaree Anglo Saxon Verse Anisometric Verse Antiphon Anistubh Anna Anthem The Apostles Apostrophe Aquarian Arabesque Arabian Onegin Sonnet Arabian Sonnet Arabic Verse Forms Archilochian Verse Argonelles Arkaham Ballad Arlabecca Verse Arnold Ars Poetica Art Major Art Menor asciepiad meter Asean Sonnet or Asean Royal Flush Sonnet Atarlis Fileata Atom Atrina Aubade Auden Group Augmented Monometrics Augustan Poetry Australian Sonnet Austrian Verse Awdl Awdl gywydd Awit Baccresieze Badger Hexastich Bagarthach Verse Balada Balance Balanced Sonnet Balassi Stanza Balete Ballad Ballade Ballade, Double Ballade, Double Refrain Ballade Envoy Ballade Envoy Double refrain Ballade Grande Ballade Royal Ballade Supreme Envoy Ballade Supreme Stanza Ballata Balwo Bar Form Bardic Sonnet Baroque Poetry Barzeletta Basit Bay Chu Beacon of Hope Beast Epic Beat Poetry Beginning of Line Rhymed Sonnet or Head Rhyme Sonnet Beher Beit Belarus Verse Benison Bengali Verse Bergerette Besikuri or Besikian verse Bestiary Betwixt Bev-A-Lyn Rhyme Beymorilin Sonnet Biblical Verse Bina Binary Tree Binyon Bio Poem Black Mountain Poets Blank Verse Blank Verse Sonnet Blason Blessing Blind Rhyme Blitz Blues Sonnet Blues Stanza Blunden Boast Bob and Wheel Boketto Bon Chu Bop Verse Borrowed Poetry Boutoniere Bouts- Rimes Bowlesian Sonnet Brace Octave Brady's Touch Brag Bragi Brazilian Haiku Breccbairdne Bref Double Breton Lay Brevee Brevette Brhati Bridges Briolette Brisbane Sonnet Broadside Ballads Brus Bryant Bucolic Burden or Carol Texte Burlesque Verse Burmese Verse Forms Burns Sonnet Burns Stanza Burtonelle Bush Ballad Sonnet Bussokuseki Busta Sonnetto Butterfly Verse Bylina Byr a thoddaid Byron's Sonnet Ca Dau Cabeza Caccia Cadae Cadae Cadenza Cadence Cairo Poets California Rhymed Stanza Calligramme Cambodian Poetry Cameo Canadian Poetry Canadian Sonnet Canciónor Cancióne Candlelight Canopus Canso Cantar Canticle Cantiga Cantiga de Amigo Canto Canzone Canzonetta or Canzonet Canzonetta Prime Capitolo Cardinal Stanza Carol Stanza Carol Texteor Burden Carpe Diem Verse Caryotte Casbairdne Cascade Castilian Poetry Catalan Poetry Catalogue Verse Catch Catena Rondo Caudate Sonnet Caudate Stanza Cavalier Poetry Cavatina Celtic Twilight Celtic Verse Forms Cento Cethramtu Rannaigheacht Mor Chance Verse Chained Sonnet Chain Verse Chandler Sonnet changga Chann Channing's Sonnet Chanso or Chanson Chanson de Geste Chant Chant Royal Envoy Chant Royal Stanza Chante Fable Chantey Charm Chastushka Chaucer's Rimeor Stanza Chaucerian Roundel Chazz Effect Cherita Chinese Verse Forms Ch'I Yen Shih Chivalric Sonnet Cho-ga Choka Choral Lyric Choi's Sonnet Choral Ode Choriambics Line Christ-in-a-Rhyme Christabel Meter Christina's View Chronos Chu Ci Chueh Chu Ci Cinq Cinquain Cinqku Cinq Trois Deca La Rhyme Cinquain Cinquain Chain or Corona Cinquain Swirl Cinquain - Traditional Cinquetun or Cinquetin Cinquino Cinquo Circlet Citsorca City Poem Clare Sonnet Clarity Pyramid Classical Greek Forms Classical Hendecameter Classical Hexameter or Classical Heroic Line Classical Pentameter Classicism Cleave Poetry Clerihew Clogyrnachclog-ír-nach Closed couplet Clue-Line Cobla Esparza Cockney Poetry Coin Collom Lune Comedy Collins Stanza Comiat Common Measure Common Octave Complaint Complete couplet Complex Allitersen Composite Sonnet Compound Acrostic Compound Word Verse Conachlonn Concrete Verse Con-Verse Confessional Verse Constanza Conversation Poem Converse in Couplets Copla Copla Real Copla de arte mayor Cornish Sonnet Corona Coronasonnet Coronation Ode /td> Coronach Cosanta Côte Count Down and Count Up Countess' Grief Couplet Construction couplet envelope Couplet Sonnet Courtly Compliment Cowboy verse Cowleyan Ode Crambo Crapsey Cinquain Crystalline Cro Cumaisc Etir CasbairndeOcus Lethrannaigecht Cromorna Cross Limerick Cross Sonnet Crown or Corona of Sonnets Cuaderna Via Cuarteto Cubist Cueca Chileana Verse Culminating Verse Cumulative Verse Curse Curtal Long Hymnal Stanza Curtailed Quaintrelle Curtal Quatrain Curtal Sonnet Cycle Cyclic Poets Cyclus Cyhydedd fer Cyhydedd fer Sonnet Cyhydedd Hir Cyhydedd Naw Ban Cyrch a chwta Cywydd Cywydd deuair fyrion Cywydd deuair hirion Cywydd llosgyrnog Czech Poetry Dabali Shairi dactylic hexameter Dada Daina Dansa Dark Verse Daveda's Charm de la Mare de Tabley Deachnadh cummaisc Deachnadh mor Death Poem Débat Decannelle Decastich Decathlon Décima Décima Espinela Décima Italiana Décima Rima Decrina Decuain Deep Image Definition Poem Deibhidhe Deibhidhe Baise Fri Toin Deibhidhe Guilbnech Deibhidhe Guilbnech Dialtach Dekaaz Della Cruscan Deplorable Sonnet Descort Desdansa Deten Dialogue Diamonte Diamond Poem Diaspora Sonnet Diatelle Dickson Nocturne Didactic Cinquain Didactic Couplet Didactic Verse Diminishing Hexaverse Diminishing Monometrics Diminishing Verse Dinggedicht Dionol Dipodic Quatrain Dipodic Verse Dirge Disambiguation Distich Distorted Diablo Dithyramb Ditty Divena Sonnet Dixdeux Dixon Dizain Dobson Dodoitsu Doggerel Doggonette Sonnet Doha Domino Rhyme Donna Donne Donne's Sonnet Dorian Ode Dorsimbra Double Double Acrostic Double Ballad Stanza Double Ballade Double Ballade Supreme Double Ballade with Eight Line Stanza Double Chant Royal Double Dactyl Double Etheree Double Five Double Glosa Double Refrain Ballade Double Refrain Ballade Supreme Double Refrain Chant Royal Double Refrain Kyrielle Double Rondeau Double Sestina Double Sonnet Double Tetractys Doublet Douzet Dowson Dr. Stella Drab Poetry Dramatic Verse Dream Song Droighneach Drottkvaett Dryden Roundelay Dub Poetry Dual Sonnet Dueces Sonnet Duma Dunadh Duni Duo-Rhyme Duodora Duplex Dutch Sonnet Dyfalu Dymock Poets Genres, Devices, Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - ZAlso See Glossary of Poetic TermsA - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W-X-Y-Z
  9. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Genres, Devices, Meters, Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W-X-Y- Z Also See Glossary of Poetic Terms A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I- J - K - L - M - N- O - P- Q - R - S - T - U - V - W-X-Y-Z tr> Echo Sonnet Echo Verse Eclogue Eclogue Débat Ecphrastic Verse Edda Measures Edda - Fornroislag, Old Story Measure Edda - Ljooahattr, Song Measure Edda Malahattr, Speech Measure Eggtimer Eight-ette Eight Line Construction Eight Word Poetry Eintou Ekphrastic Verse Elegiac Couplet Elegy Elemental Ode Eleven (Silva) Eleventh Power Elfmath Sonnet Elizabethan Poetry Elizabethan Sonnet Emmett Empat Empat Encomium Enclosed Tercet Endecasillabo Endecha English Ballet English Canzone English Heroic Line English Madrigal English Ode English Quintet English Roundelay English Sonnet English Verse Forms Englyn byr cwca Englyn cyrch Englyn lleddfbroest Englyn milwr Englyn penfyr Englyn proest dalgron Englyn proest gadwynog Englyn unodl crwc Englyn unodl union Englynion Ensenhamen Entwined Enuig Envelope Couplet Envelope Quatrain Envelope Quintet Envelope Sonnet Envelope Verse EP Johnson Quintet Epic Epicedium Epigram Epinicia Epinicion Verse Epistle Epitaph Epithalamion Epulaeryu Epyllion Erasure Poem Ercil Espinela Essence Etheree Ethnographic Haiku Evensong Exquisite Corpse Fable Fabliau Faceted Diamond Fantacy Fard Fatima Stanza Sonnet Fatras feghoot Fescennine Verse Fialka Fib Fibonacci Fibonacci Spiral Figure Poem Filipino Poetry Fiore Five-Eight Poetry Five Line Construction Five Word Poetry Flamenca Flarf Fletcher Fleshy School Florette Flying Bird Sonnet Flyting Folded Sonnet Folia Forget-Me-Not Forms Redoubled Fornyroislog - Old Story Meter Found Poem Four Epoch Sonnet Four Kings Sonnet Four Line Construction Four Syllable Verse Four Word Verse Fourteener Fourteener Couplet Fourteener Sonnet Fourteenth Century Stanza Fourteenth Century Traditional Couplet Free Verse Freie Verse French Canadian Sonnet French Cinquain French Heroic Line French Rhymed Sestina French Sonnet French Verse Forms Frieze From Plow to Sport of Kings Frost's Sonnet Fu Galacian Verse Gaelic Verse Gap Garden Lace Gardenia Garland Cinquain Gaun Gayatri Gemstone Genesis Genethliacum Genre Georgian Poetry Georgian Movement Georgic Verse German Sonnet German Verse Germanic Caudated Sonnet Germanic line Geste Ghazal Gilbert Girdle Poem Glawn Gloria cum Noynoy Italianic - PGMA Glorionic Sonnet Glosa Glyconic verse Gnome or Gnomic Verse Goethe Stanza Gogyohka Goth Verse Go Vat Golliardic Verse >Gra Reformata Grammarian Sonnet Grammatical Parallelism Grand Ballade Graveyard Poets Grayette Greek Verse Forms Greek Heroic Line Grook or Gruk Grossblank The Group Gushi Gwawdodyn Gwawdodyn hir Gzha Hadron Haibun Haiga Haikai no Renga Haiku Haikuette Hamd Harlem Renaissance Harrisham Rhyme Harrisham Sonnet Hautt Hay(na)ku Hazaj Hazal Hendecasyllabic line Heptastich Heroic Couplet Heroic hexameter Heroic Line Heroic Octave Heroic Rispetto Heroic Sestet Heroic Sonnet Heroic Stanza Heroic Verse Herrick Hexaduad Hexastich Hexaverse HexSonnetta Hidden Rhyme High Octain Hijv Hindi Poetry Hikayat Hir a Thoddaid Hokku Homostrophic Ode Horatian Ode Hourglass Hrynhent Hudibrastic couplet Huitain Hyangga Hungarian Poetry Hybrid Sonnet Hymn Hymnal Measure Hymnal Octave Hyper Sonnet Iambe Ideogramme Idyll Illini Sonnet Imagism Imayo Imprecation In Memoriam Stanza Incantation Increasing Hexaverse Indian Verse Indonesian Sonnet Infinite Gloss Insane Cinquain Insult Poetry Interlocking Rubaiyat Internet Poetry Invective Verse Invented Forms Inverted Hexaduad Inverted Refrain invented verse form Inverted refrain rhetorical device Invocation Irish Verse Irish Sonnet Iroha Mokigusari Irregular Ode Italian Verse Italian Madrigal Italian Octave Italian Quatrain Italian Sestet Italian Sonnet Italianate Lines Ivorian Sonnet Jacobite Poetry Jagati Jánakú Japanese Sonnet Japanese Verse Javanese Stanzaic Forms Jazz Poetry Jeffrey's Sonnet Jisei Jeremiad The John Tee Sonnet Johnn Joseph's Star Joybell Jue Ju Kaap Kafi Kakubh Kakawin Stanza Kal's First Fireburst Kal's Wondercloth Weave Kalevala Kangaroo Pause Kanshi Kasa Kasen Renku Kashmiri Poetry Katuata Keastian Ode Keatsean Sonnet Kerf Kidung Kilmer Sonnet Kimo Kindergarten Klas Sonnet Kinetic Poetry Kipling Kireji Kiss Cross Sonnet Kiwi Pause Kloang Klon or Kloon kōel Korean Sonnet Korean Verse Kouta Knittelvers Kural Kurenberg Verse Kviouhattr Kwansaba Kwoa kyoka Kyrielle Kyrielle Dialogue Kyrielle Hymn Kyrielle Sonnet La Charta La Germania La Jemme La' libertas La'ritmo La' Tuin Lady's Slipper Lai Lai Nouveau Laisse Lake Poets Lakelet Lament Lampoon Landay Lannet LANoe Lanterne Laoatian Poetry Latin Heroic Line Latin Verse Latova Latvian Poetry Lauranelle Laurel La Velle Lay Lazy Day Sonnet Lectio Divina Left Handed Poem Lento Leonine Line Lethrannaegecht Mor Letrilla Licentia Rhyme Light Verse Lilibonelle Lilit Limerick Line Construction Line Messaging Lira List Poem Litany Little Willie Liturgical Verse Liverpool Poets Ljooagattr Logolift Long hymnal Measure Long Hymnal Octave Long Measure Long Measure Octave Loop Louise Lu Shi Luc-bat Lullaby Lunatic Sonnet Lune LuVailean Sonnet Luzviminda Sonnet Lyra Chord Lyrelle Lyrette Lyric Lyrical Verse Mabini Sonnet Macaronic Verse Mad Calf Mad Cow Madah Madrigal Madrigal Proper Madsong Stanza Magali Shairi Magic 9 Mal Mariée Malahattr-Speech Measure Malayan Wave Malaysian Forms Malyasian Sonnet Maldit Manardina Mandakranta Meter Manqaabat Mantra Marathi Poetry Margeda Marianne Marshaline Marisya or Marsia Martian Poetry Mask Masvani or Mathnawi Mason Sonnet Mathlish Sonnet Matins Mawaddes Mc Whirtle Medallion Melanesian Wave Memento Memoriam Mesostich mester de clerecía Metaphor Metaphysical Poetry Meter Basics Metric Pyramid Metrical Romance Mgur Mid-Swap Miku Miltonic Sonnet Miniature Mini Monoverse Minnesang Minuette Minute Poem Mirror Cinquain Mirror Image Mirror Sestet Mirror Tetractys Mirrored Acrostic Mirrored Refrain Mirroered Seven Sonnet Misr'a Mistress Bradstreet Stanza Misty Poets Mock Heroic Verse Modernism Monchielle Mondo Monk's Tale Stanza Monody Monometrics Mononet Monotetra Monostich Morning Song Morya's Sonnet Mote or motto Movements or Schools of Poetry Movement Poets Mudanza Mukhammas Multidirectional Sonnet Munaajaat Musaddas Musette Mushroom Cloud Mutagarib muwashshaha Muyaka Stanza Naani Naat Poetry Nam Chu Napoleonic Sonnet Nasher Couplet Narrative Verse Nature Poets Nazm Neapolitan Octave Neoclassical Poetry Neoteric Classic Neville New Apocalypse New Formalists Neo Formalists Newman Sestina NibelungenStrophe Nightsong Nijuin Nocturna Nocturne Poetry Noel Nonce Nonet Nonsense Verse Nordic Verse Nove Otto Novelinee Novem Noyes nueva maestría Nursery Rhyme Object Poem Objectivism Obsequey Ocarina Occasional Poetry Ochtfochlach Octain Octain Refrain Octameter Octastich Octasyllabic couplet Octava Real Octave Octaz-Rhyme Octelle Octet (Verse form) octet (frame) Octo Octodil Oddquain Ode Old Court Skaldic Meter Old Norse Skaldic Meters Old Story Measure Omar stanza Onda Mel Onegin stanza Onzain or Onzijn Open Couplet Open Verse Oriental Octet Orvillette O'Shaughnessy Ottava Rima OULIPO Ovi Ovillejo Genres, Devices, Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z Also See Glossary of Poetic Terms A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W-X-Y-Z
  10. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Genres, Devices, Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z Also See Glossary of Poetic Terms A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W-X-Y-Z Paean Paeon Palette Palindrome Sonnet Palindrome Palinode Panegyric Pankti Pantoum Pantun Paradelle Parallelismus Membrorum Parallelogram de Crystalline Pareados Parnassian Poets Parody Partimen Passion Sonnet Pastoral Verse Pastoral Elegy Pastorela or Pastorelle Patrol Poem Pathya Vat Patina Pattern Poetry Paulo Comitatu Sonnet Payar Pendrangle Pendulum Pensee Pentastich Persipolis Sonnet Persona Petrarchan Cancion Petrarchan Sonnet PGMA Sonnet Philippic Philippine Sonnet Philippine Stanza Sonnet Phillimore Phyquain Physiologus Pi Archimedes Piaku Pie Quebrado Pictorial Pindaric Ode Piplikamadhya Pirouette Plane 9/11 Planh Playground Rhyme Pleiades Podic Verse Poems of Place Poesia di Tema Poets of Elan Pope John XXIII Poulter's Measure Praise Poetry Pregunta Primer Couplet Princess Projack Prose Poem Prothalamium or Prothalamiumis Pruntiform Psalm Pseudotaph Puente Pun-ku Pushkin Sonnet puSlogh vagh Pylon Poetry Pyolgok Qaafiyaa Qasida Qataa Qe'ne Qi-Cheng-Zhuan-Jie Quadrilew Quadrilou Quatern Quadrette Quatern Sonnet Quaternion Quatorzain Quatrain Quatrain Envelope stanza Quaintrell Queen's Sonnet Questionku Quinnette Quintain Quintanelle Quintet Quintette Quintiles Quintilla Quinzaine Raay or Rai Raccontino Rainis Sonnet Ramal Meter Rannaighheacht Rannaigheacht bheag Rannaicheacht Ghairid Rannaicheacht Mhor Rannaicheacht Mhor Gairit Rannaicheacht, randaigecht chethar chubaid, garitrocamarcach Rajaz Rap Ravenfly Reasonnet Sonnet Recipe Poem Redondilla Redondilla Sonnet Relaxed Sonnet RemyLa Rhyme Ren Forms Renaissance Poetry renga Rengay Rengo Renkay Renku RenRhyme Repete Requiem Retourne Retournello Retrac Retruécano Revanche Reveille Reverdie Reverse Cinquain Reverse English Sonnet Reverse Etheree Reversed Monometrics Rhaiku Rhopalics couplet Rhupunt Rhyme Royal Rhymed Double Sestina Rhymer Club Rhyming Allitersen Rhyming Recipe Rictameter Riddle Rimas Dissolutos Rime Couée Rime Riche Rime Royal Rime Royal Sonnet Rionnaird Rionnaird Tri-Nard Ripple Echo Rishal Rispetto Rochester Poets Romance Double Romance Endecasilabos Romance Heroic Romance Real Romance Verso Romancero Romantic Stanza Romanticism Romancillo Romblomanon Sonnet Rondeau Rondeau Prime Rondeau Redoubled Rondel Rondel Grand Rondel Grand Modified Rondel Prime or Rondel Supreme Rondel Prime Sonnet Rondelay Rondelet Rondine Ronka> Ronsardian Ode Rosarian Sonnet Rosemary Roundabout Roundel Roundelay Royal Piral Rubai / Rubaiyat Rubaiyat Sonnet Rubliw Runic Verse Runnhent Russell Russia's Twin Eagles Russian Poetry Rustavalian Quatrain Ruthless Rhyme Ryūka Sacred Signia Saga Salamander's Fireburst Salaam Salut d Amor San Francisco Renaissance San Hsien Sanqu Sanskrit Forms Sapphic Line Sapphic Ode Sonnet Sapphic Stanza Sardine Sarlula Vikridita Saraband Saraband Sonnet Spanish / English French / Italian Satirical Verse Saturnine Meter Sau Chu Saudade Scallop Schuttelreim Schwim's Sonnet SciFaiku Scottish Chaucerians Scottish Poetry Scottish Renaissance Scottish Stanza Scupham Sonnet Scupham Stanza Séadna Séadna mheadhanach Séadna Mòr Seafonn Sedoka Seguidilla Seguidilla Gitana Seharan Sehra Seicinque Senryu Seox Sephallian Reverse Sonnet Sept Septanelle Septenary Septet Septet II Septilla Septolet Serena Serenade Serenity Refrain Serpentine Serranilla Serrano Sestennelle Sestet Sestina Sestina Sonnet Seven Word Poetry Seven-Eleven (Silva) Seven-Eleven couplet Rhyme (Silva) Seven Line Construction Sevenelle Sevenling sexain Sextilla Shadorma Shadow Sonnet Shair or Sjair Shairi Quatrain Shairi - Swahili Shairi - Urdu Shakespearean Sonnet Shantey Shanzi Shape Verse sher Sheshire Shi Jing Shichigon-zekku Shigin Shintaishi Shoe Laces Short Couplet Short Ended Englyn Short Heroic Sestet Short hymnal measure or stanza Short English Madrigal Short Measure Short Measure octave Short particular measure Short Rondel Sicilian Octave Sicilian quatrain Sicilian Movement Sicilian Quintet Sicilian Septet Sicilian Sestet Sicilian Sonnet Sicilian Tercet Sidlak Verse Sidney's Double Sestina Signature Sonnet Sijo Silva Silva de consonantes Single letter alphabet poem Sirventes Six Line Stave Six-Eight Poetry Six Line Construction Six Word Poetry Sixain Skeeter Sonnet Skeltonic Verse Skinny Skolion Slide Sonnet Sloka Snam Suad Sneadhbairdne Soaz Soft Songed Tercet Soldier's Englyn Solage Soledad Solihull Sonnet Somonka Soneto Cinco, Cuatro y Cinco Song Measure Song That Luc Bat Sonnenzio Sonnet Song That Luc Bat Sonnet Sonnet Sonnet Anapest Sonnet Comparison Chart Sonnet Reversed Sonnet Reversii Sonnet Redouble Sonnette Sonnetina (14 line) Sonnetina (10 line) Sonnetina Uno Sonnetina Due Sonnetina Tre Sonnetina Quatro Sonnetina Cinque Sonnetto Rispetto Sonondilla South African Quilt Southern Egrarians Spanish Soneta or Spanish Sonnet Spanish Verse Forms Sparrowlet Spasmodic Poetry Spectracism Speech Measure Spenserian Quintilla Spenserian Sonnet Spenserian Forte Spenserian Stanza Spine Poem Spirit Vessel Split Couplet Split Sestet Spoem or Spoemetry Spoon River Verse Sprung Rhythm Ssu Yen Shih Staccato Standard Habbie Stefanile Triadic Sonnet stanza Star Sevlin Stariny Stave Stellar Stephens Stevenson Stich Storm Sonnet Stornello Strambotto Strambotto Romangnuolo Strambotto Siciliano Strambotto Tuscano Stretch Sonnet Strong Stress Verse Strophe Stunted Sonnet Sumerian Stanza Super Sonnet Surrealist Poetry Swannet Swap Quatrain Sweetbriar Swinburne Swinburne's Double Sestina Swinburne's Quatrains Swinburne's Rhymed Sestina Syair Syllabic Verse Russia Symbolist Synchronicity Tableau Tail Rhyme Stanza Tailed Sonnet Tailgater Takhimas Tan Renga Tanaga Tang Poetry Tango Tanka Tanka String Tapa Tautogram Tawddgyrch cadwynog Tawil Meter Taylor Teacher-Pupil Equation Technopaegnia Teddy Verse Telestich Teluga Poetry Tengahan Wukir Tennyson Tenso or Tenzone Tercet Termelay Terza Rima Terza Rima Sonnet Terzanelle Tet Zayin Sonnet Tetractys Tetrastich Tetrasyllabic Couplets Thai Poetry Than Bauk Tho Bay Chu Tho Bon Chu Tho Nam Chu Tho Sau Chu Tho Tam Chu Thorley Three-Five-Seven Three Line Construction Three Poems in One Threnody Tibetan Poetry Tigerjade Tina's ZigZag Rhyme Tirrell Sonnet Tirrell Quatern Sonnet Toddaid Toddaid byr Tory Hexatet Sonnet Totok Traditional French Cinquain Traditional Hebrew Verse Traditional Mongolian Meter Transitive Sonnet Transrealism Tree of Life Trench Trenta Sei Treochair Triad Trian Rannaigechta Moire Trianglet Trichain Tri-Coupled Sestet Tricube Tri-Fall Trigee Trijan Refrain Trilinea Trilonnet Trillium Trimeric Triname Acrostic Trine Trinet Trinidad Sonnet Trio Triolet Triolet-Sonnet Tripadi Triple Acrostic Triplet Tripod Triquain found in Pathways Triquain found at Shadow Poetry Triquatrain Triquint Tristich Tristubh Tritina The Tritriplicata Triumphal Ode TriVail Triveni The Triversen Trois-Par-Huit Troisieme Trolaan Trolius Stanza Troubadouric Poetry Trouvères School Tuanortsa Tuckerman's Sonnet Tudor Lyric Tulip Tumbling verse Turkey's Delight Twenty Six Letters Twin Cinema Twin Etheree Two Line Construction Tyburn Ubi Sunt Ukrainian Poetry Underground Poetry uneven couplet unrhymed tercet Unrhymed Sonnet Uranian Urjuza Ushnik Uta Utendi/Utenzi Vaasokht Vakh Variant rhymed quatrain Vedic Verse Veltanelle Venus and Adonis Stanza Vers Beaucoup Verse Verso-Rhyme Vespers Viadeyra Victorian Poetry Viet Poetry Vignette Vilancente Villancico Villanelle Villonnet Vlle Violette Virelai Virelai Ancien Virelet Virši Visayan Sonnet Vissor Sonnet Visual Verse Wafir Waltz Waves Waka War Poets Wavelet Wayra Wedge Verse Wheel wheelbarrow Wheelchair Angel Style Whimsical Sonnet Welsh Verse Forms Whitney Whyquain Word Sonnet Wordsworth Sonnet Wrapped Refrain Wreath of Sonnets Wreathed and Unwreathed Verse Wu Yan Wu Yen Shih Wyatt/Surrey Sonnet Xiaoshi Xenolith Ya Du Yama Yeats Octave Yiddish Folk Verse ZaniLa Rhyme Zanze Zahal or Zajal Zany ZigZag Five Zappai Zejel Zen Poetry Zenith Zeno Zip Ziggurat Genres, Devices, Movements, Stanzaic Form & Verse Form - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z Also See Glossary of Poetic Terms A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W-X-Y-Z
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