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  1. Tinker

    Keatsean Sonnet

    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Sonnet Sonnet Comparison Chart English Verse The Keatsean Sonnet is a sonnet form patterned after John Keats' poem On the Sonnet. It is interesting that in researching I found Keats wrote several sonnets, mostly in the Petrarchan or Shakespearean form. But this one sonnet, the frame of which he himself did not duplicate, sparked imitation and a sonnet form named for him. Primarily written in tercets with its own unique rhyme scheme and irregular meter, Keats demonstrates that a stanza is not set apart by rhyme scheme nor metric pattern but by a thought. He includes all of the components of a classic sonnet but he deliberately scrambles them. An Ode and a Sonnet are named for him. Clearly, if you had not already noticed, John Keats (1795-1821) is an influential poet. The elements of the Keatsean sonnet are: lyrical a quatorzain, 14 lines, made up of 4 tercets followed by an unrhymed couplet. metric patterns at the discretion of the poet. One source suggests there should be no meter and the form is like free verse. I disagree, the poem is metric, the pattern however is irregular. rhymed, rhyme scheme abc abd cab cde de. composed with pivot late into the sonnet, between the last tercet and the couplet. On the Sonnet by John Keats If by dull rhymes our English must be chain’d, And, like Andromeda, the Sonnet sweet Fetter’d, in spite of pained loveliness; Let us find out, if we must be constrain’d, Sandals more interwoven and complete To fit the naked foot of poesy; Let us inspect the lyre, and weigh the stress Of every chord, and see what may be gain’d By ear industrious, and attention meet: Misers of sound and syllable, no less Than Midas of his coinage, let us be Jealous of dead leaves in the bay wreath crown; So, if we may not let the Muse be free, She will be bound with garlands of her own. Reasonnet Sonnet is an invented sonnet form by Ruth Poteet at Allpoetry which tweaks the rhyme scheme of the Keatsean Sonnet. The rhyme scheme is aaa bbb ccc ddd ee. All other elements remain the same.
  2. Tinker

    I. Line Construction

    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Frame Line Construction If the word is the cornerstone of poetry, the line is its foundation. The line is the fundamental element of verse, the difference between verse and prose. Its purpose is to increase the density of the thought or image and give focus to the words. The line is written in many styles, patterns, and meters, some of the more popular lines are: Adonic Line Alexandrine line (French) is an iambic hexameter (6 metric feet) line made up of hemistichs (half lines) separated by caesura. One source indicates to be a true Alexandrine line, the hemistichs must be equal and complete and the caesura must be absolute (period, question mark, semicolon, colon). This suits French but in English, it can make the line abrupt, overly formal. The caesura gives a dramatic, sometimes formal effect to the line. The pattern slows speech and gives the line a sense of importance. Although it is the first line of a Poulter's Measure, it is most often used as an end line of a stanza, as in the Spenserian Stanza. When written as a couplet Alexandrines are usually rhymed. Although the Alexandrine was popular in 16th century, English poetry, it is the standard line in old French Poetry and is referred to as French Heroic verse or meter. It is thought to have originated in a French verse written in 1180, Alexandrine romances extolling the heroics of Alexander the Great. Before that most French epics and romance were written in either octasyllabic or decasyllabic lines. That can thy light resume. When I have plucked the rose. --- William Shakespeare, Othello Vii Testament of Beauty by Robert Seymour Bridges (L1-L14) A poem written predominantly in Alexandrine lines. 'Twas at that hour of beauty when the setting sun squandereth his cloudy bed with rosy hues, to flood his lov'd works as in turn he biddeth them Good-night; and all the towers and temples and mansions of men face him in bright farewell, ere they creep from their pomp naked beneath the darkness;- while to mortal eyes 'tis given, ifso they close not of fatigue, nor strain at lamplit tasks-'tis given, as for a royal boon to beggarly outcasts in homeless vigil, to watch where uncurtain's behind the great windows of space Heav'n's jewel'd company circleth unapproachably- 'Twas at sunset that I, fleeing to hide my soul in refuge of beauty from a mortal distress, walk'd alone with the Muse in her garden of thought. The line has been referred to as a "loose" Alexandrine when the hemistichs are not quite equal or complete and are separated by a lessor pause such as a comma. This can also be referred to as a Fourteener. The rhythm is less abrupt and more pleasant to the ear. Today I grasp what may, not then or when but now. ----Judi Van Gorder Dipodic verse is verse written in lines with two heavy stresses and any number of unstressed and/or lightly stressed syllables. This is more apparent when the verse is read aloud. There can be variations of unstressed and lightly stressed syllables but in reading aloud, the dipodic line has two heavily stressed syllables. Conversation by Elizabeth Bishop The tumult in the heart keeps asking questions And then it stops and undertakes to answer in the same tone of voice. No one could tell the difference. Uninnocent, these conversations start, and then engage the senses, only half-meaning to. And then there is no choice, and then there is no sense; until a name and all its connotation are the same. Fourteener line is written in 2 parts separated by a caesura. It is patterned in iambic heptameter (7) and grew to popularity in 16th century English poetry. Most often the caesura occurs sometime after the 3rd foot. The line always appears as the last line of a Poulter's Measure. The Fourteener is sometimes referred to as Septenary verse. "The words he spoke were mine, who is this man who speaks my heart?" -Judi Van Gorder The Heroic line or Heroic Verse (Greek) is metrically different depending on whether it is English, French, Greek or Latin. It is named for its use in Epic poetry, in which the "deeds of brave men are narrated" Isidore of Seville, NPEOPP, pg 524. It is not enough to simply point at the meter as the defining feature of the heroic line, it generally is also linked by rhyme to another line. The long lines are often enjambed which suits the narrative rhythm of Epic verse. However, the heroic line is not just suited to the Epic, the line serves the narrative Blank Verse and the lyrical Sonnet equally well. The English Heroic Line has been called the staple of English poetry. It is written in iambic pentameter and is linked to another line by rhyme. It was the dominant poetic line of the 16th through 18th centuries. Without the rhyme, it can also be called blank verse. The heroic line has become synonymous with a line of iambic pentameter. "Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art,"- John KeatsBright Star L1 In heaven, waits the comfort that I seek. --- Judi Van Gorder The French Heroic Line is the Alexandrine line. The Greek and Latin Heroic verse is dactylic hexameter. Leonine Verse (Middle English) is a line written with 2 syllable rhyme midway and at the end of the line. It was originally employed to rhyme at a midway caesura and line end, found in Latin verse of the European Middle Ages. It appears to have been named for 12th-century monk Leonius. "They took some honey and plenty of money." -- Edward Lear, Owl and the Pussycat Monostich(Greek) is a single line of verse, a poem in a single line. It has no structural limitation other than the line itself. Mountain moon hidden behind valley clouds reveals earthbound heaven. --- jvg And see Lucy Lu's aka Lake, One Line Haiku... or Monostich poems... Mote or Motto (Italian) is one sentence, most often written in a single line, especially when the sentence is short. It expresses a complete statement or thought, most often to be expanded upon in the body of the poem. The single line may be a quote, spoken or written by another. When another's words are used in this fashion, credit must be given to the writer. Monday by Judi Van Gorder "Seize the day!" --- Horace 20 BC Break the silence of chatter by listening. The words you speak should be your finest poem. Touch the ones you love as if yesterday was a dream and tomorrow is just a word. The moment is not then or when; it is now. Sapphic Line Septenary, (Middle English), is a line name for an iambic heptameter line, (7 iambic metric feet contained therein). It is also called a Fourteener when a caesura is employed after the 3rd metric foot. Originally in Old English, it referred to any line of 7 metric feet regardless of metric pattern but evolved to the more specific iambic pattern. The two constants from Old English to today's septenary line is masculine or strong stressed end words and the measure of 7. It is the forerunner of metered poetry breaking the 7 meter line into 2 lines, the first of 4 metric feet followed by a line of 3 metric feet. I seek to share a truth in simple space with black on white. ~~jvg Serpentine verse (French), is verse that begins and ends with the same word. Named for the image of a snake with its tail in its mouth. It is symbolic of eternity, without beginning or end. "Row us out to Desenzano, to your Sirmione row"-Alfred Lord Tennyson, Frater Ave Atque Vale L1 Stich (Greek row or line), is a single line of verse written adjacent to other lines. When it stands alone it is a monostich.
  3. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Spanish Verse The Sonnet Sonnet Comparison Chart The Spanish Soneta or Spanish Sonnet, Spain's variation of the little song is written in hendecasyllabic lines. It was influenced by its Italian neighbors and uses Italian and Sicilian rhyme schemes. The Soneta is often used for monologues or exchanging vows of love. El Marqués de Santillana ( 1398-1458), was the first to write sonnets in the Spanish language. His unpublished works were in the Petrarchan form. By the 16th century, two Spanish "gentleman writers", Juan Boscán and Garcilaso de la Vega, popularized the form. But it was 17th century Francisco Quevedo who brought the sonnet to the forefront of Spanish literature. The elements of the Spanish Soneta are: a quatorzain made up of 2 Italian quatrains followed by a Sicilian sestet. syllabic, hendecasyllabic lines (11 syllables). In English often written in iambic pentameter. rhymed, rhyme scheme abba abba cdcdcd, pivot develops logically after the 2nd quatrain. Sonneto XX by Pablo Neruda Mi fea, eres una castaña despeinada, mi bella, eres hermosa como el viento, mi fea, de tu boca se pueden hacer dos, mi bella, son tus besos frescos como sandías Mi fea, ¿dónde están escondidos tus senos? Son mínimos como dos copas de trigo. Me gustaría verte dos lunas en el pecho: las gigantescas torres de tu soberanía. Mi fea, el mar no tiene tus uñas en su tienda, mi bella, flor a flor, estrella por estrella, ola por ola, amor, he contado tu cuerpo: mi fea, te amo por tu cintura de oro, mi bella, te amo por una arruga en tu frente, amor, te amo por clara y por oscura. My ugly, you're an uncombed chestnut, my belle, you're beautiful like the wind, my ugly, two mouths can be made out of yours, my belle, fresh like watermelons are your kisses. My ugly, where do your breasts hide? They're tiny like two cups of wheat. I'd like to see two moons in your chest: the gigantic towers of your sovereignty. My ugly, the sea hasn't got your nails in its store my belle, flower by flower, star by star, wave by wave, love, I've counted your body: my ugly, I love you because of your waist of gold, my belle, I love you because of a wrinkle in your forehead, love, I love you because you're clear and dark. To my Brothers by John Keats Small busy flames play through the fresh laid coals And their faint cracklings o'er our silence creep Like whispers of the household gods that keep A gentle empire o'er fraternal souls. And while for rhymes, I search around the poles, Your eyes are fixed, as in poetic sleep, Upon the lore so voluble and deep That aye at fall of night our care condoles. This is your birthday Tom, and I rejoice That thus it passes smoothly, quietly. Many such eves of gently whisp'ring noise May we together pass and calmly try What are this worlds true joy, - ere the great voice From its fair face, shall bid our spirits fly.
  4. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Sonnet Sonnet Comparison Chart English Verse The Shakespearean, English or Elizabethan Sonnet By Shakespeare's time, (his works are believed to date from 1590 through 1613), the sonnet had already been established in English poetry, thanks primarily to Wyatt, Surrey and Spenser William Shakespeare utilized and popularized the sonnet with the declamatory couplet. His popularity springboarded the sonnet to a prominent place in English literature and become the 2nd dominant sonnet form along side the Petrarchan or Italian Sonnet. The Shakespearean Sonnet, sometimes called the English Sonnet or Elizabethan Sonnet, does not use the octave/sestet structure of the Italian Sonnet. It is usually found in three quatrains ending with a rhyming couplet. Although the Italian form often pivots between the octave and the sestet, the Shakespearean Sonnet pivots deeper into the poem, sometime after line 9 or 10. Shakespeare even delayed the pivot until the 13th line in his Sonnet 30. Wherein the Italian sonnet discloses the epiphany of the subject slowly, the Shakespearean Sonnet makes a swift leap to the epiphany at the ending couplet. Shakespeare knew well the sonnet sequence is not a way of telling a story, but exists for the sake of prolonged lyrical meditation. His thoughts, his dreams, his loves all playout in this musical form. The elements of the English or Shakespearean Sonnet are: a quatorzain made up of 3 quatrains and ending in a rhymed couplet. metric, written in iambic pentameter. Sometimes the opening line of the sonnet begins with the first foot, a trochee before the poem falls into a regular iambic pattern. composed with the volta (a non physical gap) or pivot (a shifting or tilting of the main line of thought) deep into the poem, varied but always well after the 2nd quatrain. developed so that each quatrain progresses toward a surprising turn of events in the ending couplet. The epiphany of the poem arrives in a swift leap at the end. rhymed with up to 7 rhymes with a rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg. composed with an ending rhymed couplet which should be declamatory and the defining feature of the sonnet. This couplet is often the loudest, most powerful part of the sonnet. Twelfth Night Sonnet by Judi Van Gorder from Act I Scene IV by William Shakespeare Viola, shipwrecked, pretends to be a boy in the service of Duke Orosini. She falls in love with him. He, thinking her his male servant sends her on an errand to woo the fair Olivia for him. Her response as Shakespeare wrote it is: Viola:"I'll do my best To woo your lady:" Aside Viola says: "yet, a barful strife! Whoe'er I woo, myself would be his wife." Instead of Shakey's response, here is what I think she really said in sonnet form….. In your command I pledge I'll do my best To sing of you as hero, strong and fair and press the thought of you inside her breast that for your love, tis nothing she won't dare On your behalf with ruptured heart I meet To woo Olivia, the lovely lass and lay sweet blossoms at her dainty feet allowing all my hopes and dreams to pass Oh would that you could see beyond my dress No lad am I to tell your ribald jokes, A maid am I who pines for your caress and on your love for her, forever chokes. Alas I find this scene "a barful strife! Whoe'er I woo, myself would be his wife." For Pauline by Judi Van Gorder Again, brand new the acts of life unfold in chaos as her mind is purged and hurled. At every turn she must be watched and told, in vain she tries to comprehend her world. Before, she was a mother, now a child. Routine and care create dramatic masks when eyes look lost where once they probed and smiled. In fright she looks for him, Where's Leigh? She asks. Bewilderment and dread can lead to rage, Where's Leigh? her voice demands, the same refrain. Serenity and ease should come with age still, loyal friends and those she loved remain. The mystery delays instinctive tears while she resides unconscious of our fears. What Holds by A Baez Now for the real deal ..... XVIII. To His Love by William Shakespeare(1564-1616) SHALL I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date; Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimm'd. But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st; Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st:— So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. CXCVIII. "Bright Star! by John Keats(1795-1821) BRIGHT Star! would I were steadfast as thou art— Not in lone splendor hung aloft the night, And watching, with eternal lids apart, Like Nature's patient sleepless Eremite, The moving waters at their priest-like task Of pure ablution round earth's human shores, Or gazing on the new soft fallen mask Of snow upon the mountains and the moors:— No—yet still steadfast, still unchangeable, Pillow'd upon my fair Love's ripening breast To feel for ever its soft fall and swell, Awake for ever in a sweet unrest; Still, still to hear her tender-taken breath, And so live ever,—or else swoon to death. Burns Sonnet is named for Robert Burn's attempts at writing the sonnet form. He used the frame of the English or Shakespearean Sonnet form except, his Scottish burr shines through. Iambic pentameter was not natural to him and was therefore not attempted. The elements of the Burns's Sonnet are: a quatorzain made up of 3 quatrains followed by a couplet. written with lines approximate length, with the rhythm of a Scottish brogue. rhymed abab cdcd efef gg. pivot or volta late in sonnet A Sonnet upon Sonnets by Robert Burns Fourteen, a sonneteer thy praises sings; What magic myst'ries in that number lie! Your hen hath fourteen eggs beneath her wings That fourteen chickens to the roost may fly. Fourteen full pounds the jockey's stone must be; His age fourteen--a horse's prime is past. Fourteen long hours too oft the Bard must fast; Fourteen bright bumpers--bliss he ne'er must see! Before fourteen, a dozen yields the strife; Before fourteen--e'en thirteen's strength is vain. Fourteen good years--a woman gives us life; Fourteen good men--we lose that life again. What lucubrations can be more upon it? Fourteen good measur'd verses make a sonnet. Reversed English Sonnet is simply a Shakespearean or English Sonnet with a reversed order of stanzas and rhyme scheme. aa bcbc dede fgfg "Sonnet Reversed" by Rupert Brooke Hand trembling towards hand; the amazing lights Of heart and eye. They stood on supreme heights. Ah, the delirious weeks of honeymoon! Soon they returned, and, after strange adventures, Settled at Balham by the end of June. Their money was in Can. Pacs. B. Debentures, And in Antofagastas. Still he went Cityward daily; still she did abide At home. And both were really quite content With work and social pleasures. Then they died. They left three children (besides George, who drank): The eldest Jane, who married Mr Bell, William, the head-clerk in the County Bank, And Henry, a stock-broker, doing well. Returning to Italy Caudate Sonnet
  5. Tinker

    The Keatsian or English Ode

    Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Ode English Verse The Keatsian or English Ode is a stanzaic form which appears to be the result of John Keats' experimentation with the sonnet. It reflects a merging of the Sicilian quatrain and Italian sestet from the same-named sonnets. In theme, purpose, and sincerity it follows that of all Odes. The Keatsian Ode differs from the Horatian Ode in that its structure of line and stanza is a set pattern of meter, rhyme, and length, while the Horatian Ode's is "nonce" stanzaic, the structure patterned is at the discretion of the poet. The elements of the Keatsian or English Ode are: metered, accentual-syllabic verse, primarily in iambic pentameter. In exception, Ode to a Nightingale written with L8 of each stanza in trimeter. stanzaic, composed in 10 line stanzas. Usually written with between 3 and 8 stanzas. rhymed. This strict version of the ode stanza combines a Sicilian quatrain (rhyme abab) with the Italian sestet (rhyme cdecde). tranquil or contemplative. Ode on Melancholy No, no, go not to Lethe, neither twist Wolf's-bane, tight-rooted, for its poisonous wine; Nor suffer thy pale forehead to be kiss'd By nightshade, ruby grape of Proserpine; Make not your rosary of yew-berries, Nor let the beetle, nor the death-moth be Your mournful Psyche, nor the downy owl A partner in your sorrow's mysteries; For shade to shade will come too drowsily, And drown the wakeful anguish of the soul. But when the melancholy fit shall fall Sudden from heaven like a weeping cloud, That fosters the droop-headed flowers all, And hides the green hill in an April shroud; Then glut thy sorrow on a morning rose, Or on the rainbow of the salt sand-wave, Or on the wealth of globed peonies; Or if thy mistress some rich anger shows, Emprison her soft hand, and let her rave, And feed deep, deep upon her peerless eyes. She dwells with Beauty—Beauty that must die; And Joy, whose hand is ever at his lips Bidding adieu; and aching Pleasure nigh, Turning to poison while the bee-mouth sips: Ay, in the very temple of Delight Veil'd Melancholy has her sovran shrine, Though seen of none save him whose strenuous tongue Can burst Joy's grape against his palate fine; His soul shalt taste the sadness of her might, And be among her cloudy trophies hung. ~~ John Keats English Poet, 1785-1821 Ode to Poet John Keats (1795 - 1821) " Beauty is truth, truth beauty,' -- that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know"* Too soon a young and gifted poet died but left behind his love for symmetry. His sonnet, ode and classic epic cried with vivid color, tone, in harmony. Appealing to our senses, sight, and sound an ancient Grecian Urn he paints in Ode, a Cricket's song in English Sonnet frame. A Nightingale in measured verse is crowned and through his Melancholy he bestowed to us a truth in beauty to proclaim. ~~~Judi Van Gorder *from Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats The Ode Odes named for poet or culture of their origin: Thematic Odes: The Aeolic Ode The Choral Ode or Pindaric Ode or Dorian Ode The Anacreontic Ode The Horatian Ode The Irregular or Cowleyan Ode The Keatsian or English Ode The Ronsardian Ode Elegy, Obsequy, Threnody Ode Elemental Ode Genethliacum Ode Encomium or Coronation Ode Epithalamion or Epithalamium and Protholathiumis Palinode Ode Panegyric or Paean Triumphal Ode Occasional Verse
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