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Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Poetic Movements from 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries Renaissance Poetry begins with the poetry of Petrarch (1304-1374) and extends for 200 years. "This period exploited the formal devices of lyric form." NEOPP It was marked by linguistic purity. Petrarch, Spenser, Milton and a host of others over most of Europe are the poets of this age. On May Morning by John Milton Now the bright morning Star, Day's harbinger, Comes dancing from the East, and leads with her The Flowery May, who from her green lap throws The yellow Cowslip, and the pale Primrose. Hail bounteous May that dost inspire Mirth and youth, and warm desire, Woods and Groves, are of thy dressing, Hill and Dale, doth boast thy blessing. Thus we salute thee with our early Song, And welcome thee, and wish thee long. Sicilian Poets were associated with the court of Emperor Frederick II (1220-1250) in Palermo and included the Emperor himself. Probably the best known was Giacomo da Lentini who is attributed with writing the first sonnet. 13th century (Sicilian Sonnet) by Giacomo Lentini "first true sonnet" 1197-1250 lo m'aggio posto in core a Dio servire , com 'io potesse gire in paradiso, al santo loco, c'aggio audito dire, o' si mantien sollazzo, gioco e riso. Sanza mia donna non vi voria gire, quella c'a blonda testa e claro viso, che sanza lei non poteria gaudere, estando da la mia donna diviso. Ma no lo dico a tale intendimento, perch 'io pecato ci volesse fare; se non veder lo suo bel portamento e lo bel viso e 'l morbido sguardare: che'l mi teria in gran consolamento, veggendo la mia donna in ghiora stare. a- --- b a b a b a b c d c d c d I have set my heart on serving God, so that I may go to Paradise, to the holy place I have heard people speak about, where pleasure, joy and merriment never cease. Without my lady, I would not want to go there, the one who has blond hair and a shilling brow, for without her, I could not have any joy, being separated from my lady. But I am not saying this with the intention that I might want to commit a sin there; but only in order to see her dignified bearing and the beautiful face and the sweet gaze, for I would consider it a great consolation, beholding my lady standing in glory. Troubadours are from the Middle Ages,12th - 13th centuries, named from the Occitan verb "trobar" = to compose or invent. The troubadour should be distinguished as composers of verse from the jongluer who was usually his servant of lesser class and a minstrel who merely performed the troubadour's composition. The troubadours from the south of France and northern Italy planted the seeds for many verse forms still used today such as the alba, canson, sestina, sonnet, etc. These poets were often of nobility and wealth, including 23 princes and 1 king, Because of his station the troubadour was given great latitude in speech and wrote about love as well as politics from their own perspective. In the 200 year span of popularity, there were only around 400 known troubadours all together. Jaufre Rudel, Arnaut Daniel Guiraut de Bornein and Bernart de Ventadorn. are a few of the troubadours who's works have survived. A passage from a troubadouric poem by Guiraut de Bornelh Mas per melhs assire mon chan, vau cercan bos motz en fre que son tuit cargat e ple d'us estranhs sens naturals; mas no sabon tuich de cals. "But for the better foundation of my song I keep on the watch for words good on the rein (i.e. tractable like horses), which are all loaded (like pack horses) and full of a meaning which is unusual, and yet is wholly theirs (naturals); but it is not everyone that knows what that meaning is". Troubadours a free ebook Chpt 3 pg 37 by Rev. H.J. Chaytor M.A. Trouvères were northern French poets who also composed during the 12th and 13th centuries they were influenced by the troubadours . The group included poets such as Gâce Brulé and Blondel de Nesle.
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Sonnet Sonnet Comparison Chart English Verse Miltonic Sonnet converts the traditional Petrarchan sonnet form by the use of enjambment. This 17th century form was created by English poet, John Milton. Milton also took the sonnet out of the category of "love poems" and brought it into the world of politics and social issues. The elements of the Miltonic Sonnet are: a quatorzain, enjambment is used to tighten the sonnet, leaving the 14 lines unbroken by stanzas. metered, iambic pentameter rhymed, uses the Petrarchan rhyme scheme abbaabbacdecde. pivot evolves slowly after L8. composed around the themes of moral issues and political insights. On His Blindness by John Milton When I consider how my light is spent, ere half my days, in this dark world and wide, And that one talent which is death to hide Lodged with the useless, though my soul more bent to serve therewith my Maker, and present My true account, lest he returning chide, Doth God exact day-labour, light denied? I fondly ask, but Patience, to prevent That murmur, soon replies: God doth not need Either man's works or his own gifts: who best Bear his mild yolk, they serve him best. His state Is kingly: thousands at his bidding speed And post o'er land and ocean without rest; They also serve who only stand and wait. "Simple sincerity" was the tone of th Bowlesian or Australian Sonnet
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Sonnet Sonnet Comparison Chart English Verse The Heroic Sonnet departs from the quatorzain and stretches the verse for eighteen lines which could put into question whether or not it is a true sonnet. But, John Donne's The Token "sings" with the best of sonnets and convinced me this verse form easily qualifies. This longer sonnet form dates back to 16th century England. The elements of the Heroic Sonnet are: metric, iambic pentameter. a poem in 18 lines made up of 4 alternate rhymed quatrains and ending with a rhymed heroic couplet. rhymed, rhyme scheme ababcdcdefefghgh ii composed without designated arrival of the pivot, but the poem is summarized and concluded by the ending couplet. The Token by John Donne (1572-1631) Send me some token, that my hope may live, Or that my easeless thoughts may sleep and rest; Send me some honey to make sweet my hive, That in my passions I may hope the best. I beg no ribbon wrought with thine own hands, To knit our loves in the fantastic strain Of new-touched youth; nor ring to show the stands Of our affection, that as that's round and plain, So should our loves meet in simplicity; No, nor the corals which thy wrist enfold, Laced up together in congruity, To show our thoughts should rest in the same hold; No, nor thy picture, though most gracious, And most desired, because best like the best; Nor witty lines, which are most copious, Within the writings which thou hast addressed. Send me nor this, nor that, to increase my store, But swear thou think'st 'I love thee,' and no more. *Note: The term "Heroic Sonnet" isn't exclusive to the verse form described above. 17th century English poet John Milton wrote a series of Petrarchan Sonnets which are referred to as his Heroic Sonnets not because of the structure but because they were sonnets praising past heroics. In this case the term Heroic Sonnet refers more to the theme of the sonnets than the verse form. Sonnet 15 by John Milton (1608-1674) Fairfax,whose name in armes through Europe rings, Filling each mouth with envy, or with praise, And all her jealous monarchs with amaze, And rumors loud, that daunt remotest kings, Thy firm unshak'n vertue ever brings Victory home, though new rebellions raise Thir Hydra heads, & the false North displaies Her brok'n league, to impe their serpent wings. O yet a nobler task awaites thy hand; For what can Warrs, but endless Warr still breed, Till Truth, & Right from Violence be freed, And Public Faith cleard from the shamefull brand Of Public Fraud. In vain doth Valour bleed While Avarice, and Rapine share the land. Milton was not only busy with his "heroic sonnets", he also created a new sonnet form the Miltonic Sonnet
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Sonnet Sonnet Comparison Chart Italian Verse The Petrarchan Sonnet, also called the Italian Sonnet is one of the two dominant sonnet forms, the other being the English or Shakespearean sonnet. Both have weathered the corruption of time. The Petrarchan Sonnet came on the heels of the first sonnet form, the Sicilian Sonnet which is rarely seen in today's literature. The more popular Italian or Petrarchan Sonnet built on the Sicilian form and converted the original alternating rhyme octave to an octave made up of 2 envelope rhymed quatrains and the alternating rhymed sestet to a sestet made up of 2 tercets with rhyme options of chained, envelope or alternating. In the 14th century the Italian poet, Francesco Petrarch wrote a series of Love Sonnets to Laura, evolving the sonnet from a love song of platonic relationship or veneration of God to show the sonnet as the perfect vehicle for expounding on the wonders and pitfalls of romantic love. A Crown of Sonnets is a series of 7 Sonnets linked by repetition of the last line of each sonnet as the first line of the next sonnet and the last line of the seventh and last sonnet is the first line of the first sonnet. A Wreath or Corona of Sonnets, like the Crown of Sonnets, is a series of Sonnets. But in a "wreath" there are 14 Sonnets linked by repeating the last line of the previous sonnet as the first line of the next sonnet and the first line of the first sonnet is the last line of the last sonnet. Wreath of Sonnets. (Thanks to Aleks for finding this form and a beautiful example for your reading pleasure.) A Sonnet Redouble' is a Wreath or Corona of sonnets with an added 15th sonnet at the end made up of the corresponding first line of the previous 14 sonnets. The elements of the Italian or Petrarchan Sonnets are: a single quatorzain made up of an octave followed by a sestet. composed with the octave presenting an idea, problem or question, followed by a sestet finding the solution or resolution. metered, iambic pentameter. rhymed with 5 rhymes or less. The octave made up of 2 envelope quatrains turned on only 2 rhymes abbaabba is followed by a sestet made up of 2 tercets with a choice of envelope cdccdc, chained cdecde or alternate rhyme cdcdcd. composed with a volta (non physical gap) or pivot (a shifting or tilting of the main line of thought) between the octave and the sestet. The epiphany (manifestation or realization) unravels slowly from octave to sestet. I will put Chaos into fourteen lines And keep him there; and let him thence escape If he be lucky; let him twist, and ape Flood, fire, and demon--his adroit designs Will strain to nothing in the strict confines Of this sweet Order, where, in pious rape, I hold his essence and amorphous shape, Till he with Order mingles and combines. Past are the hours, the years, or our duress, His arrogance, our awful servitude: I have him. He is nothing more than less Than something simple not yet understood; I shall not even force him to confess; Or answer. I will only make him good. ----- Edna St Vincent Millay (1892-1950) On His Blindness by John Milton (1608-1674) When I consider how my light is spent, Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide, And that one Talent which is death to hide, Lodged with me useless, though my Soul more bent To serve therewith my Maker, and present My true account, least he returning chide, Doth God exact day-labour, light denied, I fondly ask; But patience to prevent That murmur, soon replies, God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts, who best Bar his milde yoak, they serve him best, his State Is Kingly. Thousands at his bidding speed And post o're Land and Ocean without rest: They also serve who only stand and waite. My attempt at a 20 minute sonnet challenge in the Playground using the Petrarchan form. Writing in the Dark by judi Van Gorder It's midnight and the race is on to write a sonnet, little song with sounds that please and fits the frame of Petrarch with some ease. A tome in meter tests my brain at night and strains the eyes adjusting to the light. A wonder I've not fallen to my knees, can't even give the time it takes to sneeze as desparation keeps the tempo tight. How do these others play the challenge game, the tune that poets carry in their heads unique to each alone is valued gold. I'll have to read and learn them all by name, but time ticks on and they are in their beds while I am writing words and getting cold. Next, the sonnet goes to England Wyatt/Surrey Sonnet