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Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry The Sonnet Sonnet Comparison Chart English Verse The Terza Rima or Diaspora Sonnet, appeared in England in the 19th century. It makes use of the interweaving pattern and forward movement of the Italian Terza Rima. This variation of the sonnet is written in tercets with an interlocking rhyme scheme and concludes with a refrain or invocation in the form of a heroic couplet. The Greek word "diaspora" means "scattered abroad". The Bible used the word to refer to the Jews who lived outside of Palestine after the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem in 587 B.C. The Jews scattered into the Greek Roman cities and later further north. They maintained their Jewish identity while adapting to the language and customs of their new homes by continuing to honor Jewish traditions. Perhaps in regard to this Sonnet form, it refers back to the original Italian Terza Rima form continuing its interlocking rhyme while adapting to a new language and new frame. The elements of the Terza Rima Sonnet are: a quatorzain, made up of 4 tercets and concluding with a rhyming couplet. metric, iambic pentameter. composed with a volta (a non physical gap) or pivot (a shifting or tilting of the main line of thought) sometime after the 2nd tercet. similar to the Spenserian Sonnet in which the poem progresses forward developing the metaphor, conflict, idea or question. The epiphany of the poem arrives logically in the couplet. rhymed with up to 6 rhymes with an interlocking rhyme scheme is aba bcb cdc ded ee. written so that the concluding rhyming couplet serves as a refrain or invocation. Ode to the West Make me thy lyre, even as the forest is: What if my leaves are falling like its own! The tumult of thy mighty harmonies will take from both a deep, autumnal tone, Sweet though in sadness. Be thou, Spirit fierce,------------- My spirit! Be thou me, impetuous one! Drive my dead thoughts over the universe Like withered leaves to quicken a new birth! And, by the incantation of this verse, Scatter, as from an unextinguished hearth Ashes and sparks, my words among mankind! Be through my lips to unawakened Earth The trumpet of a prophecy! 0 Wind, If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind? ---Percy Bysshe Shelley 1792-1822 Acquainted with the Night I have been one acquainted with the night. I have walked out in rain--and back in rain. I have out walked the furthest city light I have looked down the saddest city lane. I have passed by the watchman on his beat And dropped my eyes, unwilling to explain. I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet When far away an interrupted cry Came over houses from another street, But not to call me back or say good-by; and further still at an unearthly height One luminary clock against the sky Proclaimed the time was neither wrong nor right. I have been one acquainted with the night. ----- Robert Frost 1874-1963 Rim by Tõnis Veenpere The grooves in the gray matter had sunk in; troubling thoughts adhered to the bone rim of a cage, hidden beneath delicate skin from uncurious eyes. Oft, in the dim blush of the winter gloaming came a blast: a wraith of her, locked in a kiss with him; but now, the daystar is returning fast to subjugate -- reveal and burn away -- vexatious apparitions of the past. Time to defy the high and help allay the self-inflicted torment -- to maroon addictions which beget afflictions -- today, while spring dissolves the saffron afternoon into the milk of the Full Flower Moon.
Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry 1700s Poetic Movements Graveyard Poets, also called Churchyard Poets, were 18th century poets who focused their work on human mortality. The poems often took place in a graveyard. Thomas Gray is probably the best known of these poets. Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard Sonnet on the Death of Richard West by Thomas Gray In vain to me the smiling mornings shine, And red'ning Phobus lifts his golden fire; The birds in vain their amorous descant join; Or cheerful fields resume their green attire: These ears, alas! for other notes repine, A different object do these eyes require. My lonely anguish melts no heart but mine; And in my breast the imperfect joys expire. Yet morning smiles the busy race to cheer, And new-born pleasure brings to happier men: The fields to all their wonted tribute bear: To warm their little loves the birds complain: I fruitless mourn to him that cannot hear, And weep the more because I weep in vain. Romanticism was an 18th century movement in reaction the order and balance of the Augustan age. The romantics favored self expression, inspiration and unleashed imagination. It came at a time when the rights of the individual were being asserted. Poets had greater freedom to express themselves with the diminishing of patrons who sponsored the arts. There are many different views of exactly what Romanticism who the poets were but most agree that the names Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge , William Blake, Shelley, and Lord Byran should be included. Ode to the West Wind Part I by Percy Bysshe Shelley O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn's being, Thou, from whose unseen presence the leaves dead Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing, Yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic red, Pestilence-stricken multitudes: O thou, Who chariotest to their dark wintry bed The wingèd seeds, where they lie cold and low, Each like a corpse within its grave,until Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow| Her clarion o'er the dreaming earth, and fill (Driving sweet buds like flocks to feed in air) With living hues and odours plain and hill: Wild Spirit, which art moving everywhere; Destroyer and Preserver; hear, O hear! Scriblerus Club is really an association of poets rather than a movement or school. This club was a group of poets who regularly met during 1714 to satirise 'all the false tastes in learning'. Alexander Pope, John Arbuthnot, Jonathan Swift and John Gay were among the group. Acis and Galatea by John Gay Air. Love in her eyes sits playing, And sheds delicious death; Love on her lips is straying, And warbling in her breath; Love on her breast sits panting, And swells with soft desire; Nor grace nor charm is wanting To set the heart on fire. Air. O ruddier than the cherry! O sweeter than the berry! O Nymph more bright Than moonshine night, Like kidlings blithe and merry! Ripe as the melting cluster! No lily has such lustre;|Yet hard to tame As raging flame.