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  1. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Prior to the 13th century, I think the various poetic schools or movements are probably better simply described by culture and time. Alphabet, symbols, written characters and language itself was still developing. The Chinese, the Greeks, the Jews, the Romans, the Celts, the Norsemen, the Welsh etc all left their mark. But unlike later poetic movements, it was a beginning not an expansion or revolution. It wasn't a group of poets that got together and shared philosophy or style. It happened over time in specific regions with the poets each finding their own way influenced by their specific language and culture. Classical Greek - The Greeks are the first to study features of how language can be shaped to the special purpose of poetry. They are responsible for recognizing, naming and describing every possible metric foot. They identified and named the various sounds and rhythms in meter such as the iamb and trochee. Song of Furies by Aeschylus English translation by Henry Milman UP and lead the dance of Fate! Lift the song that mortals hate! Tell what rights are ours on earth, Over all of human birth. Swift of foot to avenge are we! He whose hands are clean and pure, Naught our wrath to dread hath he; Calm his cloudless days endure. But the man that seeks to hide Like him, his gore-bedewèd hands, Witnesses to them that died, The blood avengers at his side, The Furies' troop forever stands. O'er our victim come begin! Come, the incantation sing, Frantic all and maddening, To the heart a brand of fire, The Furies' hymn, That which claims the senses dim, Tuneless to the gentle lyre, Withering the soul within. The pride of all of human birth, All glorious in the eye of day, Dishonored slowly melts away, Trod down and trampled to the earth, Whene'er our dark-stoled troop advances, Whene'er our feet lead on the dismal dances. For light our footsteps are, And perfect is our might, Awful remembrances of guilt and crime, Implacable to mortal prayer, Far from the gods, unhonored, and heaven's light, We hold our voiceless dwellings dread, All unapproached by living or by dead. What mortal feels not awe, Nor trembles at our name, Hearing our fate-appointed power sublime, Fixed by the eternal law. For old our office, and our fame, Might never yet of its due honors fail, Though 'neath the earth our realm in unsunned regions pale. Cyclic Poets is a name given to the early Greek epic poets, most of whom composed oral works including Homer. The epic poems that survived were recorded later. The name cyclical makes reference to the subject matter of their work which included the complete cycle of various wars. The Edda Measures, the Nordic language of poetry. from The Sibyl's Prophesy by Snorri Sturluson 12th century Iceland Brothers will fight, bringing death to each other. Sons of sisters will split their kin bonds. Hard times for men, rampant depravity, age of axes, age of swords, shiled split, wind age, wolf age, until the world falls into ruin. Tang Poets would simply be any poet that wrote poetry during the Tang Dynasty, 6th and 7th century China. It included the great Li Po and thousands of other Chinese poets. It encompassed the many forms of the Gushi and especially Lu Shi. To study the Tang poets, is to study that vast work of China's ancient culture. The old poetry or Gushi of the Tang dynasty was pretty much centered on the number of characters in the line, either 5 characters or 7 characters while the Lu Shi included specific numbers of lines as well as other poetic techniques. All of the Ancient Chinese poetic genres and forms are fascinating to explore and you are invited to explore them all in the forum for Chinese Poetic Devices, Genres, Stanzaic and Verse Forms. Sending Old Poems to Yuan Zhen by Xue Tao, considered one of the finest female poets of the Tang Dynasty Everyone writes poems in their own manner but only I know delicacy of wind and light. When writing of flowers in moonlight, I lean toward the dark. Of a willow in rainy dawn I write how twigs hang down. They say green jade should stay hidden deep, but I write candidly on red-lined paper. I'm old now but can't stop writing, so I open myself to you as if I were a good man. Drifting on the Lake by Wang Wei Autumn is crisp and the firmament fat, especially far from where people live. I look at cranes on the sand and am immersed in joy when I see mountains beyond the clouds. Dusk inks the crystal ripples. Leisurely the white moon comes out. Tonight I am with my oar, and can do everything, yet waver, not willing to return. Both poems found translated in The Anchor Book of Chinese Poetry by Tony Barnstone and Chou Ping The 24 Official Welsh Meters dating back to 100 BC and collected and finally recorded in 12th century BC, this rigorous and complicated code helped form a culture. Boast by Gwalchmai translated by Carl Lofmark I love May's nightingale, killer of morning sleep, And the lingering glance of a bright-faced girl. I love fine, well-bred horses, fast as the stag, Bright sorrow and the pain of love.
  2. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Poetic Movements from the 1500s. Elizabethan Poetry refers to poetry written during the 16th century, reign of Elizabeth I. Poetry was not only written in the courts but also in the taverns of England. Poets such as Shakespeare, Sir Philip Sidney, Ben Johnson and Christopher Marlow head the list. The poetry was predominately romantic but did have a range from idealism to realism and all that flows between. The English poetic forms were influenced by mostly Italian literature but also drew on Spanish and French writings. Drama in verse emerged as a popular vehicle through the works of Marlowe and Shakespeare which was respected across the continent. It was a time of experimentation when verse was used to treat subjects such as theology and science with the same affectations as romance. Poetry was popular with noblemen and peasants alike. I Must Have Wanton Poets by Christopher Marlow I must have wanton poets, pleasant wits, Musicians, that with touching of a string May draw the pliant king which way I please: Music and poetry is his delight; Therefore I'll have Italian masks by night, Sweet speeches, comedies, and pleasing shows; And in the day, when he shall walk abroad, Like sylvan nymphs my pages shall be clad; My men, like satyrs grazing on the lawns, Shall with their goat-feet dance the antic hay; Sometime a lovely boy in Dian's shape, With hair that gilds the water as it glides, Crownets of pearl about his naked arms, And in his sportful hands an olive-tree, To hide those parts which men delight to see, Shall bathe him in a spring; and there, hard by, One like Actæon, peeping through the grove, Shall by the angry goddess be transformed, And running in the likeness of an hart, By yelping hounds pull'd down, shall seem to die: Such things as these best please his majesty. Scottish Chaucerians were a group of 16th century Scottish poets influenced by the writings of Chaucer. It was a time when poets tried to create something new from what had gone before. The works of Chaucer were not their only influence. The poetry also reflected a distinct Scottish flavor, using the traditions and history of the Scots. Names of poets included King James I, Robert Henryson, William Dunbar and Gawin Douglas. To a Lady by William Dunbar SWEET rois of vertew and of gentilness, Delytsum lily of everie lustynes, Richest in bontie and in bewtie clear, And everie vertew that is wenit dear, Except onlie that ye are mercyless Into your garth this day I did persew; There saw I flowris that fresche were of hew; Baith quhyte and reid most lusty were to seyne, And halesome herbis upon stalkis greene; Yet leaf nor flowr find could I nane of rew. I doubt that Merche, with his cauld blastis keyne, Has slain this gentil herb, that I of mene; Quhois piteous death dois to my heart sic paine That I would make to plant his root againe,-- So confortand his levis unto me bene.
  3. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Poetry of the 17th Century Baroque Poetry is known as an elaborate style embellished with complicated metaphors. The word baroque is Portuguese for imperfectly formed pearl. English poet Richard Crashaw, 17th century. Upon the Book and Picture of Sacrificial Saint Teresa by Richard Crashaw O THOU undaunted daughter of desires! By all thy dower of lights and fires; By all the eagle in thee, all the dove; By all thy lives and deaths of love; By thy large draughts of intellectual day, And by thy thirsts of love more large than they; By all thy brim-fill'd bowls of fierce desire, By thy last morning's draught of liquid fire; By the full kingdom of that final kiss That seized thy parting soul, and seal'd thee His; By all the Heav'n thou hast in Him (Fair sister of the seraphim!); By all of Him we have in thee; Leave nothing of myself in me. Let me so read thy life, that I Unto all life of mine may die! The Cavalier Poets were 17th century English poets associated with the royal court of the King Charles I. Some of the elements of their works are refined language, light hearted tones, direct language and clear images. The poems were royalist, secular and sometimes nostalgic. Some Cavalier poets were Ben Jonson, Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace and Sir John Suckling. To Lucasta on Going to Sea by Richard Lovelace IF to be absent were to be Away from thee; Or that when I am gone You or I were alone; Then, my Lucasta, might I crave Pity from blustering wind or swallowing wave. But I'll not sigh one blast or gale To swell my sail, Or pay a tear to 'suage The foaming blue god's rage; For whether he will let me pass Or no, I'm still as happy as I was. Though seas and land betwixt us both, Our faith and troth, Like separated souls, All time and space controls: Above the highest sphere we meet Unseen, unknown; and greet as Angels greet. So then we do anticipate Our after-fate, And are alive i' the skies, If thus our lips and eyes Can speak like spirits unconfined In Heaven, their earthy bodies left behind. Dadaism Jacobite Poets refers to poets during the reign of James I (1603-1625). John Donne, Michael Drayton, Ben Jonson and even Shakespeare although he is better known as an Elizabethan Poet. Sonnet III Taking My Pen by Michael Drayton Taking my pen, with words to cast my woe, Duly to count the sum of all my cares, I find my griefs innumerable grow, The reckonings rise to millions of despairs; And thus dividing of my fatal hours, The payments of my love I read and cross, Subtracting, set my sweets unto my sours, My joy's arrearage leads me to my loss; And thus mine eye's a debtor to thine eye, Which by extortion gaineth all their looks; My heart hath paid such grievous usury That all their wealth lies in thy beauty's books, And all is thine which hath been due to me, And I a bankrupt, quite undone by thee. Metaphysical Poetry is a movement from 17th century England, emotional poetry using simple or common language and unconventional, sometimes shocking imagery. Recognized as intellectual, psychological, often unconventional and bold. John Donn> and George Herbert are probably the best known of the Metaphysical poets. Sonnet, Death Be Not Proud by John Donne Death, be not proud, though some have called thee Mighty and dreadful, for thou are not so; For those whom thou think'st thou dost overthrow Die not, poor Death, nor yet canst thou kill me. From rest and sleep, which but thy pictures be, Much pleasure; then from thee much more must flow, And soonest our best men with thee do go, Rest of their bones, and soul's delivery. Thou'art slave to fate, chance, kings, and desperate men, And dost with poison, war, and sickness dwell, And poppy'or charms can make us sleep as well And better than thy stroke; why swell'st thou then? One short sleep past, we wake eternally, And death shall be no more; Death, thou shalt die. Neoclassic Poetry is from 17th-18th century England overlapping with Augustan poetry, that tended to be satirical and didactic. The movement originated by Ben Jonson and included Alexander Pope, John Dryden, Robert Herrick and Thomas Gray deliberately imitated the classic poetry of Greek and Roman poets and was crafted with a formal correctness with elegant restraint. It tended to view poetry as a honed craft rather than an expression of the soul. The world was described in terms of a strictly ordered heirarchy which neoclassics called The Great Chain of Being. Essay on Critisism by Alexander Pope But most by Numbers judge a Poet's song; And smooth or rough, with them, is right or wrong: In the bright Muse tho' thousand charms conspire, Her voice is all these tuneful fools admire; Who haunt Parnassus but to please their ear, Not mend their minds; as some to church repair, Not for the doctrine but the music there. These equal syllables alone require, Tho' oft the ear the open vowels tire; While expletives their feeble aid do join; And ten low words oft creep in one dull line: While they ring round the same unvaried chimes, With sure returns of still expected rhymes; Where'er you find "the cooling western breeze," In the next line it "whispers through the trees" If crystal streams "with pleasing murmurs creep" The reader's threaten'd (not in vain) with "sleep": Then, at the last and only couplet fraught With some unmeaning thing they call a thought, A needless Alexandrine ends the song That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along. Tribe of Ben were 17th century poets who admired and emulated Ben Jonson. Some of the poets were Robert Herrick, Carew, Lovelace and Suckling. The Hag by Robert Herrick The Hag is astride, This night for to ride; The Devill and shee together: Through thick, and through thin, Now out, and then in, Though ne'r so foul be the weather. A Thorn or a Burr She takes for a Spurre: With a lash of a Bramble she rides now, Through Brakes and through Bryars, O're Ditches, and Mires, She follows the Spirit that guides now. No Beast, for his food, Dares now range the wood; But husht in his laire he lies lurking: While mischiefs, by these, On Land and on Seas, At noone of Night are working, The storm will arise, And trouble the skies; This night, and more for the wonder, The ghost from the Tomb Affrighted shall come, Called out by the clap of the Thunder.
  4. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Early 1800s Poetic Movements Classicism is a school of poetry known for its sense of formality and restrained emotion. Classical poets are noted to strive for perfection, their clarity of purpose, balance and use of elevated but not pompous language. The early 1800s saw a revival of Classicism although the term actually refers to poets of many eras who each built their work with respect and emulation of the first classical poets, the ancient Greeks and Romans, names such as Ovid, Homer, Horace, Catullus, Lucretius and Virgil. Classical poets are credited with the development of many thematic genres and forms. Great English poets who were considered among the best of Classical poets are Ben Jonson, Elegy; John Dryden Absalom and Architophel, Alexander Pope, Rape of the Lock; Samuel Johnson, The Vanity of Human Wishes and Matthew Arnold, The Scholar Gipsy. Elegy by Ben Jonson . Though beauty be the mark of praise, And yours of whom I sing be such As not the world can praise too much, Yet is 't your virtue now I raise. A virtue, like allay, so gone Throughout your form, as, though that move And draw and conquer all men's love, This sùbjects you to love of one. Wherein you triumph yet; because 'Tis of yourself, and that you use The noblest freedom, not to choose Against or faith or honor's laws. But who should less expect from you, In whom alone Love lives again? By whom he is restored to men, And kept, and bred, and brought up true. His falling temples you have reared, The withered garlands ta'en away; His altars kept from the decay That envy wished, and nature feared; And on them burn so chaste a flame, With so much loyalties' expense, As Love, t' acquit such excellence, Is gone himself into your name. And you are he; the deity To whom all lovers are designed That would their better objects find; Among which faithful troop am I. Who, as an offspring at your shrine, Have sung this hymn, and here entreat One spark of your diviner heat To light upon a love of mine. Which, if it kindle not, but scant Appear, and that to shortest view, Yet give me leave t' adore in you What I in her am grieved to want. Cockney Poetry was a term used by Blackwood Magazine 1817 England to describe poetry by poets from "humble" beginnings such as Leigh Hunt and John Keats. Abou Ben Adhem by James Leigh Hunt Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase!) Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace, And saw, within the moonlight in his room, Making it rich, and like a lily in bloom, An angel writing in a book of gold: Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold, And to the Presence in the room he said "What writest thou?" The vision raised its head, And with a look made of all sweet accord, Answered "The names of those who love the Lord." "And is mine one?" said Abou. "Nay, not so," Replied the angel. Abou spoke more low, But cheerly still, and said "I pray thee, then, Write me as one that loves his fellow men." The angel wrote, and vanished. The next night It came again with a great wakening light, And showed the names whom love of God had blessed, And lo! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest. Lake Poets is a term used to identify 19th century poets, William Wordsworth,Robert Southey andSamuel Taylor Coleridge who all lived in the Lake District and drew inspiration from the landscape. To A Goose by Robert Southey If thou didst feed on western plains of yore Or waddle wide with flat and flabby feet Over some Cambrian mountain's plashy moor. Or find in farmer's yard a safe retreat From gipsy thieves and foxes sly and fleet; If thy grey quills by lawyer guided, trace Deeds big with ruin to some wretched race, Or love-sick poet's sonnet, sad and sweet, Wailing the rigour of some lady fair; Or if, the drudge of housemaid's daily toil, Cobwebs and dust thy pinion white besoil, Departed goose! I neither know nor care. But this I know, that thou wert very fine, Seasoned with sage and onions and port wine. Peasant Poetry was work of 19th century poets from poor backgrounds often concerned with nature or rural setting. A couple of Peasant poets were John Clare andRobert Bloomfield. Braggart by John Clare With careful step to keep his balance up He reels on warily along the street. Slabbering at mouth and with a staggering stoop Mutters an angry look at all he meets. Bumptious and vain and proud he shoulders up And would be something if he knew but how; To any man on earth he will not stoop But cracks of work, of horses and of plough. Proud of the foolish talk, the ale he quaffs, He never heeds the insult loud that laughs: With rosy maid he tries to joke and play,-- Who shrugs and nettles deep his pomp and pride. And calls him 'drunken beast' and runs away-- King to himself and fool to all beside Victorian Poetry was written during the reign of Queen Victoria (1819-1901), the poets of this time created an escapist world inspired by Camelot and the Arthur legend Tennyson was a Victorian poet. Lady of Shallot by Alfred Lord Tennyson Part I On either side the river lie Long fields of barley and of rye, That clothe the wold and meet the sky; And through the field the road runs by ----------To many-towered Camelot; And up and down the people go, Gazing where the lilies blow Round an island there below, ----------The island of Shalott. Willows whiten, aspens quiver, Little breezes dusk and shiver Through the wave that runs for ever By the island in the river ----------Flowing down to Camelot. Four grey walls, and four grey towers, Overlook a space of flowers, And the silent isle imbowers ----------The Lady of Shalott. By the margin, willow-veiled Slide the heavy barges trailed By slow horses; and unhailed The shallop flitteth silken-sailed ----------Skimming down to Camelot: But who hath seen her wave her hand? Or at the casement seen her stand? Or is she known in all the land, ----------The Lady of Shalott? Only reapers, reaping early In among the bearded barley, Hear a song that echoes cheerly From the river winding clearly, ----------Down to towered Camelot: And by the moon the reaper weary, Piling sheaves in uplands airy, Listening, whispers "Tis the fairy ---------------Lady of Shalott."
  5. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Late 1800s Poetic Movements Aesthetic Movement is predicated upon the school of thought that art is its own justification and purpose. Edgar Allen Poe, Algernon Swinburne, Oscar Wilde were 19th century proponents. The Cameo by Algernon Swinburne 1837-1909 There was a graven image of Desire Painted with red blood on a ground of gold Passing between the young men and the old, And by him Pain, whose body shone like fire, And Pleasure with gaunt hands that grasped their hire. Of his left wrist, with fingers clenched and cold, The insatiable Satiety kept hold, Walking with feet unshod that pashed the mire. The senses and the sorrows and the sins, And the strange loves the suck the breasts of Hate Till lips and teeth bite in their sharp indenture, Followed like beasts with flap of wings and fins. Death stood aloof behind a gaping grate, The Apostles, Alfred Lord Tennyson, EM Forster, Bertram Russell, Arthur Hallam were all members of this 19th century, society of intellectuals at Cambridge University in 1820. Crossing the Bar by Alfred Lord Tennyson Sunset and evening star, And one clear call for me! And may there be no moaning of the bar, When I put out to sea, But such a tide as moving seems asleep, Too full for sound and foam, When that which drew from out the boundless deep Turns again home. Twilight and evening bell, And after that the dark! And may there be no sadness of farewell, When I embark; For tho' from out our bourne of Time and Place The flood may bear me far, I hope to see my Pilot face to face When I have cross'd the bar. Della Cruscans were sentimentalist English poets from the late 1800s led by Robert Merry while in Italy. It was meant to be a collaboration between English and Italian poets and took its name from the Accademia della Crusca, a movement from the 16th century to "purify" the Italian language. The term became associated with affected, pretentious, often ornate poetry. Poets such Wordworth and Lord Byron, although not associated with the movement were influenced by the romanticism of the movement. Sonnet on Seeing Miss Helen Maria Williams Weep at a Tale of Distress She wept.--Life's purple tide began to flow In languid streams through every thrilling vein; Dim were my swimming eyes--my pulse beat slow, And my full heart was swell'd to dear delicious pain. Life left my loaded heart, and closing eye; A sigh recall'd the wanderer to my breast; Dear was the pause of life, and dear the sigh That call'd the wanderer home, and home to rest. That tear proclaims--in thee each virtue dwells, And bright will shine in misery's midnight hour; As the soft star of dewy evening tells What radiant fires were drown'd by day's malignant pow'r, That only wait the darkness of the night To cheer the wand'ring wretch with hospitable light. AXIOLOGUS William Wordsworth The European Magazine 40 (March 1787) 202 Fleshy School of Poetry was a term (uncomplimentary) attributed to what was concieved as the immoral and overly sensual poetry of 19th century poets, Daniel Gabriel Rossetti, William Morris and Swinburne. The term came from Robert Buchanan (writing as Thomas Maitland) Love Lily by Dante Gabriel Rossetti Between the hands, between the brows, Between the lips of Love-lily, A spirit is born whose birth endows My blood with fire to burn through me; Who breathes upon my gazing eyes, Who laughs and murmurs in mine ear, At whose least touch my color flies, And whom my life grows faint to hear. Within the voice, within the heart, Within the mind of Love-Lily, A spirit is born who lifts apart His tremulous wings and looks at me; Who on my mouth his finger lays And shows, while whispering lutes confer, That Eden of Love's watered ways Whose winds and spirits worship her Brows, hands, and lips, heart, mind, and voice, Kisses and words of Love-Lily,-- Oh! bid me with your joy rejoice Til riotous longing rest in me! Ah! let not hope be still distraught, But find in her its gracious goal, Whose speech Truth knows not from her thought Nor Love her body from her soul. Modernism is a movement between 1890 and 1940 that challenged and often rejected traditional form in poetry. The movement was led by TS Eliot who wrote one of the most significant Modernist poem The Waste Land and my favorite The Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock, William Butler Yeats and Ezra Pound who was a founder of Imagism. The popularity of Free Verse came about through this movement. Portrait d'une Femme by Ezra Pound Your mind and you are our Sargasso Sea, London has swept about you this score years And bright ships left you this or that in fee: Ideas, old gossip, oddments of all things, Strange spars of knowledge and dimmed wares of price. Great minds have sought you�lacking someone else. You have been second always. Tragical? No. You preferred it to the usual thing: One dull man, dulling and uxorious, One average mind�with one thought less, each year. Oh, you are patient, I have seen you sit Hours, where something might have floated up. And now you pay one. Yes, you richly pay. You are a person of some interest, one comes to you And takes strange gain away: Trophies fished up; some curious suggestion: Fact that leads nowhere; and a tale or two, Pregnant with mandrakes, or with something else That might prove useful and yet never proves, That never fits a corner or shows use, Or finds its hour upon the loom of days: The tarnished, gaudy, wonderful old work; Idols and ambergris and rare inlays, These are your riches, your great store; and yet For all this sea-hoard of deciduous things, Strange woods half sodden, and new brighter stuff: In the slow float of differing light and deep, No! there is nothing! In the whole and all, Nothing that's quite your own. Yet this is you. Parnassian Poets were a group of 19th century French poets who's rebellion to the excesses of Romantisism spurred them to write with objectivity and restraint. The Parnassians took their name from the Greek mountain sacred to Apollo and the Muses, the Parnassians. They espoused "art for art's sake", perfection of form, language and pictorial imagery. Theodore Banville and Leconte de Lisle were prominent in the movement and although I could find no examples of their work in English the movement played an important role in the development of French poetry. Un Poete Mort by Charles Leconte de Lisle Toi dont les yeux erraient, altérés de lumière, De la couleur divine au contour immortel Et de la chair vivante à la splendeur du ciel, Dors en paix dans la nuit qui scelle ta paupière . Voir, entendre, sentir ? Vent, fumée et poussière Aimer ? La coupe d'or ne contient que du fiel. Comme un Dieu plein d'ennui qui déserte l'autel, Rentre et disperse-toi dans l'immense matière. Sur ton muet sépulcre et tes os consumés Qu'un autre verse ou non les pleurs accoutumés, Que ton siècle banal t'oublie ou te renomme ; Moi, je t'envie, au fond du tombeau calme et noir, D'être affranchi de vivre et de ne plus savoir La honte de penser et l'horreur d'être un homme! A Dead Poet by Charles Leconte de Lisle You whose eyes wandered, altered light The divine immortal outline color And living flesh to the splendor of heaven, Sleep in peace at night that seals your eyelid. ee, hear, smell? Wind, smoke and dust. Love? The Golden Bowl contains only gall. As a God full of boredom deserted the altar Goes up and disperses in the vast area. n your silent tomb, and your bones consumed Another verse or not crying accustomed, Thy century banal or renames you forget you; envy you at the bottom of quiet and dark tomb To be free to live and not know The shame of thinking and the horror of being a man! Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood is a 19th century group of poets and artists who's work used medieval settings and subject matter and was a rebellion against the ugliness of Victorian life. They were particularly inspired by La Belle Dame Sans Merci by John Keats. Poets such as D.G. Rossetti, Walter Pater and William Morris were among the brotherhood. A Good Knight in Prison by William Morris Wearily, drearily, Half the day long, Flap the great banners High over the stone; Strangely and eerily Sounds the wind's song, Bending the banner-poles. While, all alone, Watching the loophole's spark, Lie I, with life all dark, Feet tether'd, hands fettered Fast to the stone, The grim walls, square-lettered With prison'd men's groan. Still strain the banner-poles Through the wind's song, Westward the banner rolls Over my wrong. The Rhymers' Club was a group of poets who began meeting as a dining club upstairs at the Cheshire Cheese pub on Fleet Street, London England in the late 1800s. W. B. Yeats, Ernest Rhys, Ernest Dowson, Lionel Johnson, Richard Le Gallienne, John Davidson, Edwin Ellis, Victor Plarr, Selwyn Image, A. S. Hillier, John Todhunter, Arthur Symons, Ernest Radford and Thomas William Rolleston were part of the group which produced anthologies in 1892 and 1894. Several of the group were "fated to failure or early death" which caused Yeats to call them the "tragic generation". A Last Word by Ernest Dowson Let us go hence: the night is now at hand; The day is overworn, the birds all flown; And we have reaped the crops the gods have sown; Despair and death; deep darkness o'er the land, Broods like an owl; we cannot understand Laughter or tears, for we have only known Surpassing vanity: vain things alone Have driven our perverse and aimless band. Let us go hence, somewhither strange and cold, To Hollow Lands where just men and unjust Find end of labour, where's rest for the old, Freedom to all from love and fear and lust. Twine our torn hands! O pray the earth enfold Our life-sick hearts and turn them into dust. Spasmodic School was a group of 19th century, Victorian poets whose poetry was marked by violent and obscure imagery. Some poets associated with this group were P. J. Bailey, J.W. Marston, S.T. Dobell and Alexander Smith. Home In War Time by S T Dobell SHE turn'd the fair page with her fairer hand- More fair and frail than it was wont to be- O'er each remember'd thing he lov'd to see She linger'd, and as with a fairy's wand Enchanted it to order. Oft she fanned New motes into the sun; and as a bee Sings thro' a brake of bells, so murmur'd she, And so her patient love did understand The reliquary room. Upon the sill She fed his favorite bird. "Ah, Robin, sing! He loves thee. Then she touches a sweet string Of soft recall, and towards the Eastern hill Smiles all her soul-for him who cannot hear The raven croaking at his carrion ear. The Uranian Poets were a small group of underground pederast English poets from 1858-1930. These clandestine classicalists preferred to use conservative verse forms, idealized the history of Ancient Greece and seemed to have an infatuation for adolescent boys. William Johnson, Lord Alfred Douglas, John Gambril Nicholson, Rev. E. E. Bradford, John Addington Symonds, Edmund John, and Fabian S. Woodley were among the noted. There were also others who used pseudonyms such as "Philebus" and "A. Newman". Much of their work was privately published and limited by Victorian taboos.
  6. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry 1940s Poetic Movements The Black Mountain Poets are a school of poetry from the 1940's centered at Black Mountain College North Carolina which promoted open form and was spawned in an environment attempting to create the ideal community. Also call projectivist poets, they based the frame of their poetry on the line, referred to as an utterance or a breath. Poetry Guide Robert Creeley, Robert Duncan and Denise Levertov were a few of the Black Mountain Poets. Passage Over Water by Robert Duncan We have gone out in boats upon the sea at night, lost, and the vast waters close traps of fear about us. The boats are driven apart, and we are alone at last under the incalculable sky, listless, diseased with stars. Let the oars be idle, my love, and forget at this time our love like a knife between us defining the boundaries that we can never cross nor destroy as we drift into the heart of our dream, cutting the silence, slyly, the bitter rain in our mouths and the dark wound closed in behind us. Forget depth-bombs, death and promises we made, gardens laid waste, and, over the wastelands westward, the rooms where we had come together bombed. But even as we leave, your love turns back. I feel your absence like the ringing of bells silenced. And salt over your eyes and the scales of salt between us. Now, you pass with ease into the destructive world. There is a dry crash of cement. The light fails, falls into the ruins of cities upon the distant shore and within the indestructible night I am alone. Ciaro Poets were a group of poets based in North Africa during World War II. Kieth Douglas and Lawence Durrell were part of the group. Cairo Jag by Keith Douglas Shall I get drunk or cut myself a piece of cake, a pasty Syrian with a few words of English or the Turk who says she is a princess--she dances apparently by levitation? Or Marcelle, Parisienne always preoccupied with her dull dead lover: she has all the photographs and his letters tied in a bundle and stamped Decede in mauve ink. All this takes place in a stink of jasmine. But there are the streets dedicated to sleep stenches and the sour smells, the sour cries do not disturb their application to slumber all day, scattered on the pavement like rags afflicted with fatalism and hashish. The women offering their children brown-paper breasts dry and twisted, elongated like the skull, Holbein's signature. But his stained white town is something in accordance with mundane conventions- Marcelle drops her Gallic airs and tragedy suddenly shrieks in Arabic about the fare with the cabman, links herself so with the somnambulists and legless beggars: it is all one, all as you have heard. But by a day's travelling you reach a new world the vegetation is of iron dead tanks, gun barrels split like celery the metal brambles have no flowers or berries and there are all sorts of manure, you can imagine the dead themselves, their boots, clothes and possessions clinging to the ground, a man with no head has a packet of chocolate and a souvenir of Tripoli. New Apocalypse Poets were a group of 1940s poets who rejected the classicism of Auden. "Their work was wild, turbulent and surrealist." (Poet's Graveyard) Some of the poets were Dylan Thomas, James Findlay Hendry, George Barker, Henry Treece and G.S.Fraser. They were in direct opposition with the Movement poets. The Waiting Watchers by Henry Treece They shall come in the black weathers From the heart of the dead embers, Walking one and two over the hill. And they shall be with you, never farther Than your bedside. At their will The smell of putrefaction lingers And floor is carpeted with rotting hair; Or sheets are torn to shreds By the beaks of dead dry birds And the red blood clots in your cup. Put up your swords! What steel can cut the throat of next year's dream, What tongue is tunes to speak last night's quick scream? Go alone by darkness; Burn the clippings of your nail; Donate a thousand candles. But do as you will, When sun is blind and lamps are lit once more, Two and one, they shall be standing At your door. Objectivists was more a 20th century community of poets than a movement. This group of poets were inspired by Ezra Pound, WC Williams, and the Imagist Movement. Zukofsky who founded this group defined objectivism as sincerity and objectification. Some of the poets were Basil Bunting, Carl Rakosi, George Oppen, Charles Reznikoff, and Louis Zukofsky. From Odes: Chorus of Furies by Basil Bunting Let us come upon him first as if in a dream, anonymous triple presence, memory made substance and tally of heart's rot: then in the waking Now be demonstrable, seem sole aspect of being's essence, coffin to the living touch, self's Iscariot. Then he will loath the year's recurrent long caress without hope of divorce, envying idiocy's apathy or the stress of definite remorse. He will lapse into a half-life lest the taut force of the mind's eagerness recall those fiends or new apparitions endorse his excessive distress. He will shrink, his manhood leave him, slough self aware the last skin of the flayed: despair. He will nurse his terror carefully, uncertain even of death's solace, impotent to outpace dispersion of the soul, disruption of the brain.
  7. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry 1950s Poetic Movements Beat Poetry Confessional Verse The Group isn't really a school or movement but simply a regular gatherings of poets in the mid 1950s that included Ted Hughes, Peter Redgrove, George MacBeth, Edward Lucie-Smith and the founders Philip Hobsbaum and his wife. God of Love by George MacBeth The musk-ox is accustomed to near-Arctic conditions. When danger threatens, these beasts cluster together to form a defensive wall, or a "porcupine", with the calves in the middle. Dr Wolfgang Engelhart I found them between far hills, by a frozen lake. On a patch of bare ground. They were grouped In a solid ring, like an ark of horn. And around Them circled, slowly closing in, Their tongues lolling, their ears flattened against the wind, A whirlpool of wolves. As I breathed, one fragment of bone and Muscle detached itself from the mass and Plunged. The pad of the pack slackened, as if A brooch had been loosened. But when the bull Returned to the herd, the revolving collar was tighter. And only The windward owl, uplifted on white wings In the glass of air, alert for her young, Soared high enough to look into the cleared centre And grasp the cause. To the slow brain Of each beast by the frozen lake what lay in the cradle of their crowned Heads of horn was a sort of god-head. Its brows Nudged when the arc was formed. Its need Was a delicate womb away from the iron collar Of death, a cave in the ring of horn Their encircling flesh had backed with fur. That the collar of death Was the bone of their own skulls: that a softer womb Would open between far hills in a plunge Of bunched muscles: and that their immortal calf lay Dead on the snow with its horns dug into The ice for grass: they neither saw nor felt. And yet if That hill of fur could split and run like a river Of ice in thaw, like a broken grave It would crack across the icy crust of withdrawn Sustenance and the rigid circle Of death be shivered: the fed herd would entail its under-fur On the swell of a soft hill and the future be sown On grass, I thought. But the herd fell By the bank of the lake on the plain, and the pack closed, And the ice remained. And I saw that the god In their ark of horn was a god of love, who made them die. Movement Poets of the 20th century were known to be anti-poetic, sardonic and witty. Some Movement poets were Philip Larkin, Kingsley Amis, D. J. Enright, John Wain and Robert Conquest. It is much harder to find poems in the public domain by these contemporary poets. Home is So Sad by Philip Larkin Home is so sad. It stays as it was left, Shaped to the comfort of the last to go As if to win them back. Instead, bereft Of anyone to please, it withers so, Having no heart to put aside the theft And turn again to what it started as, A joyous shot at how things ought to be, Long fallen wide. You can see how it was: Look at the pictures and the cutlery. The music in the piano stool. That vase. San Francisco Renaissance is an umbrella term for the hodgepodge of poets and artistic communities that came out of the San Francisco Bay Area after World War II through the late 40's, 50's and 60s. The Beat movement, Black Mountain poets, Black Arts etc. although often on opposing sides artistically and politically, all reflected the Pacific coastal environment and the various cultures that populated the area. Poets such as Kenneth Rexroth, Robin Blaser, Robert Duncan, Allen Ginsberg and Gary Snyder let poetry workshops at San Francisco State College (which is where I went to school in the early 60s, but unfortunately I was uninterested in poetry at the time, so I never heard any of them, my loss.) and UC Berkeley. Codicil by Kenneth Rexroth 1956 Most of the world's poetry Is artifice, construction. No one reads it but scholars. After a generation It has grown so overcooked, It cannot be digested. There is little I haven't Read, and dreary stuff it was. Lamartine , Gower , Tasso , Or the metaphysicals Of Cambridge, ancient or modern, And their American apes. Of course for years the ruling Class of English poetry Has held that that is just what Poetry is, impersonal Construction, where personal Pronouns are never permitted. If rigorously enough Applied, such a theory Produces in practice its Opposite. The poetry Of Eliot and Valéry, Like that of Pope, isn't just Personal, it is intense, Subjective reverie as Intimate and revealing, Embarrassing if you will, As the indiscretions of The psychoanalyst's couch. There is always sufficient Reason for a horror of The use of the pronoun, "I."
  8. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry 1960s Poetic Movements Akhmatova's Orphans, another short lived Russian poetic movement. Named after the Ukrainian poet Anna Akhmatova, a major contributor to Acmeism, the 1960's movement included young St Petersburg poets such as Joseph Brodsky and Yevgeny Rein whom she mentored. On the 100th Anniversary of Anna Akhmatova by Joseph Brodsky The fire and the page, the hewed hairs and the swords, The grains and the millstone, the whispers and the clatter -- God saves all that -- especially the words Of love and pity, as His only way to utter. The harsh pulse pounds and the blood torrent whips, The spade knocks evenly in them, by gentle muse begotten, For life is so unique, they from the mortal lips Sound more clear than from the divine wad-cotton. Oh, the great soul, I'm bowing overseas To you, who found them, and that, your smoldering portion, Sleeping in the homeland, which, thanks to you, at least, Obtained the gift of speech in the deaf-mute space ocean. Black Arts Movement was the artistic side of the American, Black Power movement of the 1960s. The movement included all of the arts, playwrights, painters, musicians, actors, and of writers in general. There had been a smattering of African-American poets before this time, but the poets of the Black Arts movement helped propel ethnic minority voices into the forefront of American literature. It allowed dialect and diverse cultural experiences of the African American to be heralded and recognized. Probably the most famous poet associated with the movement is Maya Angelou, even though she spent most of the 60s working in So Africa. A few others are Amiri Baraka, Tom Dent, Nikki Giovanni and Lorenzo Thomas. I know why the caged bird sings by by Maya Angelou A free bird leaps on the back Of the wind and floats downstream Till the current ends and dips his wing In the orange sun's rays And dares to claim the sky. But a BIRD that stalks down his narrow cage Can seldom see through his bars of rage His wings are clipped and his feet are tied So he opens his throat to sing. The caged bird sings with a fearful trill Of things unknown but longed for still And his tune is heard on the distant hill for The caged bird sings of freedom. The free bird thinks of another breeze And the trade winds soft through The sighing trees And the fat worms waiting on a dawn-bright Lawn and he names the sky his own. But a caged BIRD stands on the grave of dreams His shadow shouts on a nightmare scream His wings are clipped and his feet are tied So he opens his throat to sing. The caged bird sings with A fearful trill of things unknown But longed for still and his Tune is heard on the distant hill For the caged bird sings of freedom. Deep Image is a term to describe poetry written by US poets Jerome Rothenberg, Robert Bly, Diane Wakoski and Clayton Eshleman. The term came from the Spanish "cante jondo" (deep song) of Federico Garcia Lorca and his symbolist works. Later James Wright and Galway Kinnell joined the list of Deep Image poets, relying on concrete images to "make the experience". "In general, deep image poems are resonant, stylized and heroic in tone. Longer poems tend to be catalogues of free-standing images." wikipedia Taking the Hands by Robert Bly Taking the hands of someone you love. You see they are delicate cages . . . Tiny birds are singing In the secluded prairies, And in the deep valleys of the hand. Liverpool Poets were poets Roger McGough, Brian Patten and Adrian Henri who worked together in Liverpool in the 1960s. They were known for their humorous, anti-intellectual poetry which they published and performed there. Survivor by Roger McGough Everyday, I think about dying. About disease, starvation, violence, terrorism, war, the end of the world. It helps keep my mind off things. OULIPO is an acronym for "OuvioÍr de littérature potentÍelle" ~ ourvroÍr means "workroom in a convent". OULIPO was a 1960s French poetic movement of poets and mathematicians that experimented with and explored rhetorical game like forms. The movement was founded by Raymond Queneau 1903-1976 who may be better known as a Surrealist poet from the French Restistance of WWII. Some of the forms explored by the Oulipo poets were the Sestina, the Cento, Rhopalics couplet , Tautogram and others. Underground Poets were UK performance poets including Adrian Mitchell, Tom Pickard, Basil Bunting, Heathcote Williams, Michael Horovitz and the Liverpool Poets. Front by Tom Pickard there is something so familiar in what is said I stop and listen, a traveller's monologue of dark moaning trees, chopped waters, deserted street corners, randomly disturbed light, raised curtains, doors flung open, sudden precipitous avenues, far away dogs brought near it is insistent secures my inner ear we pick up the old conversation neither of us understands.
  9. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry 1970s and Beyond Canadian Poetry Assoc., begun in 1985 and still going strong, The Association can be found on Facebook. Simply, it is an organization dedicated to Canadian poetry, the reading, writing, publishing, marketing and preservation. Some poets associated with the association are Shaunt Basmajian, James Deahl, Wayne Ray and Beverley Daurio. I read the paper and stay awake all night writing poems trying to forget everything dreaming of a new world a solution an answer in the aftermath" —Shaunt Basmajian, excerpt from "On That Other Day In The Life Of Arto Sarkissian," Poets Who Don't Dance, 1985. Cowboy Poetry is a contemporary poetic movement or genre of folk poetry written by people with firsthand experience of American western life with horses, trail riding, and cattle ranching. Although poems have been written since the days of the "Old West" of the 1800s, the genre wasn't really named or paid attention to as a movement until the late 20th century. It is usually written in plain language, sometimes humorous and occasionally composed in rhymed ballad stanzas. It is often read or recited aloud. Poets such as Doc Hayes, Joel Nelson and even more mainstream poets such as Donald Hall -Name of Horses and Gary Snyder - Hay is For Horses have written in the genre. Name of Horses by Donald Hall All winter your brute shoulders strained against collars, padding and steer-hide over the ash hames, to haul sledges of cordwood for drying through spring and summer, for the Glenwood stove next winter, and for the simmering range. In April you pulled cartloads of manure to spread on the fields, dark manure of Holsteins, and knobs of your own clustered with oats. All summer you mowed the grass in meadow and hayfield, the mowing machine clacketing beside you, while the sun walked high in the morning; and after noon's heat, you pulled a clawed rake through the same acres, gathering stacks, and dragged the wagon from stack to stack, and the built hayrack back, uphill to the chaffy barn, three loads of hay a day from standing grass in the morning. Sundays you trotted the two miles to church with the light load a leather quarter-top buggy, and grazed in the sound of hymns. Generation on generation, your neck rubbed the windowsill of the stall, smoothing the wood as the sea smoothes glass. When you were old and lame, when your shoulders hurt bending to graze, one October the man, who fed you and kept you, and harnessed you every morning, led you through corn stubble to sandy ground above Eagle Pond, and dug a hole beside you where you stood shuddering in your skin, and lay the shotgun's muzzle in the boneless hollow behind your ear, and fired the slug into your brain, and felled you into your grave, shoveling sand to cover you, setting goldenrod upright above you, where by next summer a dent in the ground made your monument. For a hundred and fifty years, in the Pasture of dead horses, roots of pine trees pushed through the pale curves of your ribs, yellow blossoms flourished above you in autumn, and in winter frost heaved your bones in the ground - old toilers, soil makers: O Roger, Mackerel, Riley, Ned, Nellie, Chester, Lady Ghost. Martian Poetry is a 20th century, English amphigorical poetic movement (well maybe a movement by just a few, Christopher Reid and Craig Raine in the 1979s-1980s, poetic surrealism in which common objects on Earth were viewed through the eyes of a "Martian" who then describes them in strange and exotic metaphors. This concept was to "break the familiar in poetry". Kaleidoscope A Martian Sends A Post Card Home by Craig Raine Caxtons are mechanical birds with many wings and some are treasured for their markings -- they cause the eyes to melt or the body to shriek without pain. I have never seen one fly, but sometimes they perch on the hand. Mist is when the sky is tired of flight and rests its soft machine on ground: then the world is dim and bookish like engravings under tissue paper. Rain is when the earth is television. It has the property of making colors darker. Model T is a room with the lock inside -- a key is turned to free the world for movement, so quick there is a film to watch for anything missed. But time is tied to the wrist or kept in a box, ticking with impatience. In homes, a haunted apparatus sleeps, that snores when you pick it up. If the ghost cries, they carry it to their lips and soothe it to sleep with sounds. And yet they wake it up deliberately, by tickling with a finger. Only the young are allowed to suffer openly. Adults go to a punishment room with water but nothing to eat. They lock the door and suffer the noises alone. No one is exempt and everyone's pain has a different smell. At night when all the colours die, they hide in pairs and read about themselves -- in colour, with their eyelids shut. The Misty Poets of China are connected to the protest of the restrictions of the Chinese Cultural Revolution in the 70s, 80s and 90s. The movement is called "misty" because their poetry was officially denounced as misty or obscure and by 1980 their magazine, Jintian - Today was banned. (It has since been resurrected in Sweden and serves as a voice for expatriots of China. Some of the poets have been exiled but a few have stayed in China. The Answer by Bei Dao Translated By Bonnie S. McDougall This poem was the anthem of Tienemen Square pro-democracy movement. In 1989 the poet Bei Dao was exiled from China because of his literary work. Debasement is the password of the base, Nobility the epitaph of the noble. See how the gilded sky is covered With the drifting twisted shadows of the dead. The Ice Age is over now, Why is there ice everywhere? The Cape of Good Hope has been discovered, Why do a thousand sails contest the Dead Sea? I came into this world Bringing only paper, rope, a shadow, To proclaim before the judgment The voice that has been judged: Let me tell you, world, I—do—not—believe! If a thousand challengers lie beneath your feet, Count me as number thousand and one. I don't believe the sky is blue; I don't believe in thunder's echoes; I don't believe that dreams are false; I don't believe that death has no revenge. If the sea is destined to breach the dikes Let all the brackish water pour into my heart; If the land is destined to rise Let humanity choose a peak for existence again. A new conjunction and glimmering stars Adorn the unobstructed sky now; They are the pictographs from five thousand years. They are the watchful eyes of future generations. "The Answer" by Bei Dao, translated by Bonnie S. McDougall from THE AUGUST SLEEPWALKER, copyright © 1988 by Bei Dao. Translation copyright © 1988, 1990 by Bonnie S. McDougall. Found at PoetryFoundation.org in the public domain. New Formalists or Neo Formalists of the late 1980 and 1990s and into the 21st Century is a primarily American movement to bring attention to traditional forms of verse in terms of meter, rhyme, and stanzaic symmetry. Unhappy with the overwhelming shift to Free Verse and the almost distain many had for metrical patterns as inadequate to express "organic truth", "New Formalist poets and their advocates rallied behind the traditions, aesthetics, and practices they believed had been all but abandoned by many of their contemporaries." Poets.org. The poets who considered themselves New Formalists drawn to form as an alternative to the free verse standard that was handed to them. Some New Formalists are, Timothy Steele, Donald Revelle, Brad Liethauser, Molly Peacock and even Irish poet Seamus Heaney. Good Girl by Molly Peacock American Poet 1947 - Hold up the universe, good girl. Hold up the tent that is the sky of your world at which you are the narrow center pole, good girl. Rup- ture is the enemy. Keep all whole. The itch to be yourself, plump and bending, below a sky unending, held up by God forever is denied by you as Central Control. Sever yourself, poor false Atlas, poor "Atlesse," lie recumbent below the sky. Nothing falls down, except you, luscious and limited on the ground. Holding everything up, always on your own, creates a loneliness so profound you are nothing but a column, good girl, a temple ruin against a sky held up by forces beyond you. Let yourself curl up: a fleshy fetal figure cupped about its own vibrant soul. You are the universe about its pole. God's not far. Note: Atlas: "one of the older family of gods, who was supposed to hold up the pillars of the universe, and also of the mountain in Libya that was regarded as supporting the heavens" (OED). "Atlesse": supposed feminine and diminutive form of "Atlas." Rochester Poets is an active literary society founded in 1922 in Rochester NY as a local chapter of the Poetry Society of America. It has since separated from its parent organization in the 80s to broaden its membership. The group holds monthly poetry readings, publishes a monthly newsletter and The Pinnacle Hill Review*, an annual anthology of selected member work. They can be found on the web at Rochester Poets. Adelaide Crapsey was a member of the Rochester Poets. Visiting a Quaker Meeting by Patricia Janus I am new to this. My mantra selects itself, different from the one I chose. The kangaroo mind leaps to my list of needs. Is someone watching the time? The monkey chatters. Is this how forever begins? The mind and heart go off on different paths; the mantra calls them back until it changes to a prayer of syllables that does not translate into words but spirit song. Transrealism is a literary movement combining th eelements of science fiction and naturalistic realism. It exposes the disconnect or escapism of science fiction as well as the boundries and weight of natural realism. The term was first used by Rudy Rucker who is considered the founder of the movement. He primarily wrote novels but there are poets in the list of writers who have embraced the movement. You Begin by Margaret Atwood You begin this way: this is your hand, this is your eye, that is a fish, blue and flat on the paper, almost the shape of an eye. This is your mouth, this is an O or a moon, whichever you like. This is yellow. Outside the window is the rain, green because it is summer, a nd beyond that the trees and then the world, which is round and has only the colors of these nine crayons. This is the world, which is fuller and more difficult to learn than I have said. You are right to smudge it that way with the red and then the orange: the world burns. Once you have learned these words you will learn that there are more words than you can ever learn. The word hand floats above your hand like a small cloud over a lake. The word hand anchors your hand to this table, your hand is a warm stone I hold between two words. This is your hand, these are my hands, this is the world, which is round but not flat and has more colors than we can see. It begins, it has an end, this is what you will come back to, this is your hand.
  10. Explore the Craft of Writing Poetry Poetic Schools or Movements That Have Influenced the Direction of Poetry Through History The craft of writing poetry has taken various routes throughout history. All learning builds on knowledge that has gone before and the craft of writing is no different. How we write today has been built from how others wrote in the past. Throughout history poetic schools or movements have sprung up influenced by the conventions or philosophies of the times that surrounded them. The following are a few to take note of. I try to include a poem from one poet in each movement or era when I can find them already posted somewhere on the internet. Abstract Poetry Acmeism Akhmatova's Orphans Aesthetic Movement The Apostles The Auden Group also called the Thirties Movement Augustan Poetry Baroque Poetry Beat Poetry Black Arts Movement The Black Mountain Poets British Poetry Revival Canadian Poetry Assoc. Ciaro Poets The Cavalier Poets Classical Greeks Classicism Cockney Poetry Confessional Verse Cowboy Poetry Cubist Poetry Cyclic Poets Dadism Deep Image Della Cruscans Dymock Poets The Edda Measures Elizabethan Poetry Fleshy School of Poetry Georgian Poetry Graveyard Poets, also called Churchyard Poets The Group The Harlem Renaissance Imagism Jacobite Poets Jazz Poetry Lake Poets Liverpool Poets Martian Poetry Metaphysical Poetry Misty Poets Modernism Movement Poets Nature Poets Neoclassic Poetry New Apocalypse Poets Objectivists Parnassian Poets Peasant Poetry Poets of Elan Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Pylon Poets Renaissance Poetry The Rhymers' Club Rochester Poets Romanticism San Francisco Renaissance Scottish Chaucerians Scottish Renaissance Scriblerus Club Sicilian Poets Southern Agrarians Spasmodic School Spectascism Surrealist Poets Symbolist Poets Tang Poets Transrealism Tribe of Ben Troubadours Trouvères Tudor Lyric Underground Poets The Uranian Poets Victorian Poetry War Poetry The 24 Official Welsh Meters Zen Poetry
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