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hokku - renga or renku - Haikai-no-renga


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Japanese Verse

Renga, Renku, or Haikai-no-renga is the linked poem discipline developed by Basho. It is a cooperative poem of many stanzas. Poets, (2 or more) gather to create a spontaneous poem of alternating 17 syllable (5-7-5), 14 syllable (7-7) stanzas. A popular form of Renga is written in 36 stanzas known as kasen renku. The custom dates back to 13th century Japan.

The poets in rotation take turns writing the stanzas. The poem begins with the hokku (5-7-5) recording when and where the gathering occurs, see below. The next stanza (7-7) is usually written by the host, in response to the subtle compliment suggested in the hokku. From there the stanzas are written in turn by the various members of the assembly in an alternating (5-7-5), (7-7) pattern. The poem is ended in a tanka (short poem) which combines 2 renga stanzas into 1. (5-7-5-7-7)

The renga or renku is not meant as a narrative, it doesn't tell a sequential story. It is meant to move around, the stanzas should "link and shift" Bruce Ross, How to Haiku. The stanzas link in some subtle way to the previous stanza only, not the whole poem. The link can be through a word, a mood an idea set in the previous stanza. It "develops texture by shifting among several traditional topics without narrative progress" William Higgins, The Haiku Handbook.

The elements of the Renga or Renku are:

  1. syllabic. Alternating stanzas, usually of 5-7-5 and 7-7 syllables. (onji or sound symbol for which there is no exact translation in English, the closest we can come is syllable)
  2. a cooperative poem, written by 2 or more poets.
  3. spontaneous.
  4. composed with stanzas or verses that "link and shift", it does not tell a sequential story. Can have over a 100 verses (hyakuin renku), but the most popular form is to end at 36 known as kasen renku. (nijuin =20 verses, hankasen = 18 verses, shishi = 16 verses, jusanbutsu = 13 verses & junicho or shisan = 12 verses
  5. structured with a beginning, middle and end. Hokku (starting verse), followed by linked verses, and ends with a Tanka (small poem).
  6. connected to the seasons. Although the hokku indicates the season in which the gathering occurs, somewhere within the renga, there should be verses referring to each of the seasons to create a complete circle.

    The following isn't a full renga but the stanzas are written by different poets and it gives you an idea of the pattern of stanzas and "link and shift".

    shade of giant tree
    lacy shadows cool poets
    summer parasol
                     --- jkt (hokku by guest poet)
    walk of friendship warms the feet
    the head cooled by task at hand
                     ---jvg (host's response, wakiku or side verse)
    those who walked before
    never turned to look for us
    but left their footprints
                     ---fj (daisan, the third)
    walk with a poet awhile
    cool sand between tanned toes
    a walk in the woods
    putrescent trees on the ground
    life for small creatures
                       --- mm
    the smallest life is my life
    I sit in stillness and write.
                       --- jvg
    perhaps a poet,
    summer, spring, winter, or fall,
    will abide with me.
                            --- cl
    time ever moves without pause
    a circle, new life to old
    winter snow is back
    beginning new cover up
    to spring's confusion
    crystal covers burrowed home
    I snuggle under down quilt
    Small gray rabbit melts
    prone into soft snow furrow
    I'm really not here
                               --- bh
    the pocket of a soldier
    carries my letter from home
                              --- jkt
    in God's Name we war
    hate can grow in any season
    we feel no sorrow
                            --- rab
    sorrow holds regret
    for loss of what went before
    loss of what did not
    spring to winter, back to spring
    circle of life, love and hate
                          --- jvg (tanka)

  • Hokku発句  (opening or starting verse) is the introduction or beginning verse of the Renga or Renku, a linked communal poem.  As far back as the 13th century Japan,  poets would gather to write a Renga  in a kind of poem writing party each poet contributing verse in a linked fashion.  Originally, as a compliment to the host, one of the guest poets would write the hokku. The purpose of the hokku is to record the logistics of the gathering, when (season, month and/or time of day) and where (natural setting).  By the time of Basho 16th century the hokku could be found as a stand alone poem.

    It is the precursor of the haiku that came into popularity a bit later. It is this hokku rule of time and place that was carried over into the later haiku which established naming a season with images of the environment as elements of the traditional haiku.

    The elements of the hokku are:
    1. syllabic, 17 syllables or less. (onji or sound symbol for which there is no exact translation in English, the closest we can come is syllable)
    2. commonly written in 3 lines often broken at 5-7-5 syllables.
    3. names the season, month, and/or time of day as well as the location where the Renga gathering occurs. All of the above can be named through symbols of the season etc.
    4. usually written by a guest poet.
      fūryū no hajime ya oku no taueuta
      beginnings of poetry—
      the rice planting songs
      of the Interior
                   ~~Basho translated by Shirane

      If I were the guest poet writing a hokku in this time and place, (summer in Northern California) I could write a hokku something like,

      shade of giant tree
      lacy shadows cool poets
      summer parasol

  • Nijuin is a 20 stanza renga introduced by 20th century renga master Meiga Higashi. The form not only has the limited # of stanzas, it is the shortest of the rengas, but it also divides the poem into 3 sections. The first 4 stanzas begin in Spring, the next 12 travel through the seasons including love and moon verses and the last 4 stanzas end back in Spring.

~~ © ~~ Poems by Judi Van Gorder ~~

For permission to use this work you can write to Tinker1111@icloud.com

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